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debate or, on the other hand, if each Senator can be guaranteed adequate time for debate after cloture has been applied. 15
CONCLUSION As I review the impressive accomplishments of the first session of the Eightieth Congress, it seems to me that 1947 was a year of notable progress toward the modernization of our National Legislature. While some provisions of the act have not yet been carried out and others are working only partly, the leaders in both Houses and both political parties have been sincerely trying to carry out the act in good faith. The delay in the application of the new fiscal controls has been due, in large part, to the technical and procedural difficulties involved. Rome was not built in a day and it takes time to adjust old habits to new ways of doing things.
Viewed in the larger perspective of our times, the Legislative Reorganization Act is seen as part of a general effort to strengthen and adapt the machinery of American Government to the needs of the times in a dangerous age. At the local level 800 American cities had adopted the efficient manager form of government by the end of 1947—125 of them in the last 2 years. Four States have recently revised their constitutions and one-third of the States are now actively engaged in the effort to modernize their fundamental charters. Meanwhile, the Hoover Commission, operating under authority of an act favorably reported by your committee, is tackling the task of reorganizing the executive branch of the National Government, greatly distorted and distended by the Second World War. In the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 Congress has gone far to strengthen its own machinery and methods, though the task is not yet finished.
In conclusion, Mr. Chairman, permit me to quote from the seventh intermediate report of the Select House Committee to Investigate Executive Agencies.
"In nation after nation it has been proven that the freedom of the people and the continuance of democratic institutions depend directly on the vigor, the effectiveness, and the strong position of the national legislature. Much of the criticism which has in recent years been heaped upon the Congress of the United States has been irresponsible and undeserved. But there has been also well-considered and constructive criticism which merits attention. No.effort should be spared to make congressional organization, procedure, and functioning as nearly perfect as possible." 16
Table 1.-Select committees created by 80th Congress, first session Senate:
Members 1. To investigate national defense program.
10 2. To study problems of American small business.
12 3. On reconstruction of Senate roof and skylights.
1. To study problems of small business
1. On housing
14 14 10
112 18 See Franklin L. Burdette, The Limits of Congressional Debate, Human Events, July 30, 1947. Also Galloway, op. cit., pp. 80-81.
16 Seventh Intermediate Report of the Select Committee to Investigate Executive Agencies, House of Representatives, (78th Cong., 2d sess., H. Rept. 1912, Nov. 20, 1944, p. 1).
1 Includes standing subcommittees as distinguished from special subcommittees appointed to consider single bills. 1947 data are as of Aug. 15, 1947.
TABLE 3.-Special investigations authorized by the Senate, 80th Cong., 1st sess.
Agriculture and Forestry (2).
Small Business (1)
$15,000 Foot and mouth disease, agricultural
Social Security program.
Coal cars, box cars, freight car distri.
bution, etc. 75,000 5 investigations 30,000 Central Valley project, petroleum re
sources, etc. 15,000 Recent floods.
100,000 Small business.
Economic Report (1).
25,000 Consumer prices.
Grand total (30)...
1 Senate share.
TABLE 4.-Special investigations authorized by the House, 80th Congress, first
House Administration (1).
Foreign Aid (1).
2 50,000 Housing. 1,117,500
Grand total (28)..
1 Plus an unexpended balance of $26,204.03 at close of 79th Congress. 3 House share.
Table 5.—Employees of Senate committees July 1, 1947 to December 31, 1947
1 10 3 3
2 16 6 5 8 3 6 6
3 2 4
Agriculture and Forestry.
1 Mostly investigators employed by subcommittees pursuant to special investigations.
TABLE 6.—Employees of House Committees, July 1, 1947, to Dec. 31, 1947
1 Mostly investigators and consultants employed pursuant to special investigations.
Exhibit A. JURISDICTIONAL QUESTIONS IN THE SENATE DURING FIRST SESSION
OF EIGHTIETH CONGRESS 1. Senate Resolution 40, providing for the extension of the special committee to investigate petroleum resources. Was referred to Committee on Public Lands. Senator Moore thought it should have been referred to the Committee on Rules and Administration. (Congressional Record, January 10, 1947, p. 231.)
2. S. 49 and 70, amending the Fair Labor Standards Act to exempt employers from liability for portal-to-portal wages, etc. Judiciary versus Labor and Public Welfare. (Congressional Record, January 10, 1947, pp. 231-3, 241-2; January 13, 1947, pp. 279-80.) Chair ruled in favor of Judiciary Committee.
3. Senate Joint Resolution 34, prohibiting War Assets Administration from disposing of certain pipe lines. Armed Services versus Interstate and Foreign Commerce. (Congressional Record, January 15, 1947, p. 381.) Referred to Armed Services.
4. S. 758, creating a single Department of National Defense. Armed Services versus Expenditures in Executive Departments. (Congressional Record, January 27, 1947, p. 627; February 26, 1947, pp. 1465-6; March 3, 1947, pp. 1658–66.) Finally referred to Armed Services by vote of Senate.
5. S. 54 and 357, relating to the furnishing of automobiles to disabled veterans. Finance versus Labor and Public Welfare. Chair ruled in favor of Labor and Public Welfare. (Congressional Record, January 31, 1947, p. 766.)
6. Senate Joint Resolution 61, proposing an amendment to the Constitution in re a balanced Federal peacetime budget. Referred first to Appropriations for study and report and thereafter to Judiciary for final action. (Congressional Record, February 10, 1947, p. 957.)
7. Senate Joint Resolution 122, consenting to an interstate oil compact to conserve oil and gas. Interstate and Foreign Commerce versus Judiciary. Referred to Judiciary. (Congressional Record, June 2, 1947, p. 6277.)
8. Senate Joint Resolution 145, authorizing commencement of an action by the United States to determine interstate water rights in the Colorado River. Public Lands versus Judiciary. (Congressional Record, July 3, 1947, pp. 8448–50; July 8, 1947, pp. 8591-99.) Senate voted after debate to refer resolution to Committee on Public Lands.
Exhibit B. RE-REFERENCES OF HOUSE Bills DURING EIGHTIETH CONGRESS,
FIRST SESSION During the first session of the Eightieth Congress 12 House bills were referred by unanimous consent from one committee to another. The Parliamentarian of the House interprets the fact that these changes of reference were made by unanimous consent to indicate that no jurisdictional disputes over bill reference occurred during the session. The 12 changes of reference were as follows:
H. R. 70 from the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service to the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries.
H. R. 243, 507, 1184 from the Committee on Armed Services to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs.
H. R. 2473 from Banking and Currency to Public Works.
Exhibit C. STANDING COMMITTEES Which WERE ACTIVE IN SUPERVISING THE
House 1. Appropriations
1. Appropriations 2. Armed Services
2. District of Columbia 3. Banking and Currency
3. Expenditures in the Executive De4. Expenditures in the Executive De- partments partments
4. Interstate and Foreign Commerce 5. Foreign Relations
5. Merchant Marine and Fisheries 6. Judiciary
6. Post Office and Civil Service 7. Civil Service
7. Veterans' Affairs 8. Public Lands I Not an all-inclusive list.
Senator FFRGUSON. The next witness is Mr. George H. E. Smith, staff director, Majority Policy Committee, United States Senate. We have asked the Senate to allow us to continue that we might finish here.
STATEMENT OF GEORGE H. E. SMITH SECRETARY AND STAFF
DIRECTOR MAJORITY POLICY COMMITTEE, UNITED STATES SENATE
Mr. Smith. I am very grateful for that, Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, and I have so designed my statement that I will not take the full time for the statement as printed but just pick up certain high lights of it.
Senator FERGUSON. I should like to have this printed in its entirety.