Nostalgia for the Modern: State Secularism and Everyday Politics in Turkey
Duke University Press, 2006 M08 30 - 240 pages
As the twentieth century drew to a close, the unity and authority of the secularist Turkish state were challenged by the rise of political Islam and Kurdish separatism on the one hand and by the increasing demands of the European Union, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank on the other. While the Turkish government had long limited Islam—the religion of the overwhelming majority of its citizens—to the private sphere, it burst into the public arena in the late 1990s, becoming part of party politics. As religion became political, symbols of Kemalism—the official ideology of the Turkish Republic founded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1923—spread throughout the private sphere. In Nostalgia for the Modern, Esra Özyürek analyzes the ways that Turkish citizens began to express an attachment to—and nostalgia for—the secularist, modernist, and nationalist foundations of the Turkish Republic.
Drawing on her ethnographic research in Istanbul and Ankara during the late 1990s, Özyürek describes how ordinary Turkish citizens demonstrated their affinity for Kemalism in the ways they organized their domestic space, decorated their walls, told their life stories, and interpreted political developments. She examines the recent interest in the private lives of the founding generation of the Republic, reflects on several privately organized museum exhibits about the early Republic, and considers the proliferation in homes and businesses of pictures of Atatürk, the most potent symbol of the secular Turkish state. She also explores the organization of the 1998 celebrations marking the Republic’s seventy-fifth anniversary. Özyürek’s insights into how state ideologies spread through private and personal realms of life have implications for all societies confronting the simultaneous rise of neoliberalism and politicized religion.
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... economy in Eastern Europe (Bockman and Eyal 2002), liberalism in its late form has become a powerful model of modernization that non-Western and postcolonial societies intimately related to at the turn of the twenty-first century.
Nostalgia, a term that originally named the symptoms of homesick Swiss soldiers in the seventeenth century (Lowenthal 1985), is now a widespread feeling shared by millions of people at the margins of the Western world.
But what of countries like Turkey, which have been modernizing for generations, where not only Western modernity but also local modernization projects have been repeated as ideal models? What of places that became modern but then went ...
However, I argue that it is merely a di√erent expression of non-Western modernity that locates modernity in the non- present. Contemporary Turkish modernists experience the present as the decay of a former modernity and have chosen as ...
... Western world as a prince, adopted some Western models in the military (Göçek 1987; Zürcher 1998). The aim of these reforms was to make the central Ottoman state stronger against both European enemies and internal semi- independent ...
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The Public History in the Private Story
Displaying Transformations in Private Lives
The Commodification of State Iconography
Civilian Celebrations of the Turkish State
Kemalist and Islamist Versions of the Early Republic