Page images

size of the array (i.e., the amount of space access memory, and the use by many processors of used) may be changed at any time during peripheral and input/output equipment. This program execution. If an array is not used implies that high speed switching devices not now during the execution of a particular problem, incorporated in conventional computers be develthen no space will be allocated.

oped and integrated with systems.” (Bauer, 1965, "2. Arrays are automatically shifted between p. 23). See also note 2.52.

primary and secondary storage to optimize 5.85 “The actual execution of data movement the use of primary memory.

commands should be asychronous with the main “Dynamic memory allocation is a necessary

processing operation. It should be an excellent use requirement for an engineering computer system

of parallel processing capability.” (Opler, 1965, capable of solving different problems with different

p. 276). data size requirements. A dynamic command

5.86 "Work currently in progress (at Western structured language requires a dynamic internal

Data Processing Center, UCLA) includes: investidata structure. The result of dynamic memory

gations of intra-job parallel processing which will allocation is that the size of a problem that can

attempt to produce quantitative evaluations of be solved is virtually unlimited since secondary

component utilization; the increase in complexity storage becomes a logical extension of primary

of the task of programming; and the feasibility of storage." (Roos, 1965, p. 426).

compilers which perform the analysis necessary 5.80 “Any language which lacks provision

to convert sequential programs into parallel path for performing necessary operations, such as bit

programs." (Digital Computer Newsletter 16, editing for telemetered data, forces the user to

No. 4,21 (1964)). write segments in assembly language. This destroys

5.87 "The motivation for encouraging the use the machine independence of the program and

of parallelism in a computation is not so much to complicates the checkout.” (Clippinger, 1965,

make a particular computation run more efficiently p. 207).

as it is to relax constraints on the order in which 5.81 “Thus one must consider not only whether

parts of a computation are carried out. A multithe logical possibilities of a new device are ignored

program scheduling algorithm should then be able when one is restricted to a binary logic, but also

to take advantage of this extra freedom to allocate whether one is sufficiently using the signals when

system resources with greater efficiency.” (Dennis only one of the parameters characterizing that

and Van Horn, 1965, pp. 19-20). signal is used.” (Ring et al., 1965, p. 33).

5.88 "The parallel processing capability of an 5.82 “For a variety of reasons, not the least

associative processor is well suited to the tasks of of which is maturing of integrated circuits with

abstracting pattern properties and of pattern their low cost and high density, central processors

classification by linear threshold techniques." are becoming more complex in their organization.”

(Fuller and Bird, 1965, p. 112). (Clippinger, 1965, p. 209).

5.89 "The idea of DO TOGETHER was first 5.83 "No large system is a static entity- mentioned (1959) by Mme. Jeanne Poyen in disit must be capable of expansion of capacity and cussing the AP 3 compiler for the BULL Gamma 60 alteration of function to meet new and unforeseen computer.” (Opler, 1965, p. 307). requirements." (Dennis and Glaser, 1965, p. 5).

5.90 "To date, there have been relatively few “Changing objectives, increased demands for

attempts made to program problems for parallel use, added functions, improved algorithms and

processing. It is not known how efficient, for exnew technologies all call for flexible evolution

ample, one can make a compiler to handle the of the system, both as a configuration of equipment

parallel processing of mathematical problems. Furand as a collection of programs.” (Dennis and

thermore, it is not known how one breaks down Van Horn, 1965, p. 4).

problems, such as mathematical differential equa"By pooling, the number of components pro- tions, such that parts can be processed independently vided need not be large enough to accommodate and then recombined. These tasks are quite peak requirements occurring concurrently in

formidable, but they must be undertaken to estabeach computer, but may instead accommodate

lish whether the future development lies in the area a peak in one occurring at the same time as an

of parallel processing or not.” (Fernbach, 1965, average requirement in the other." (Amdahl,

” 1965, pp. 38-39).

5.91 For example, in machine-aided simula5.84 "The use of modular configurations of tions of nonsense syllable learning processes, components and the distributed executive princi- Daly et al. comment: “Presuming that, for the

insures there are multiple components parallel logic machine, the nonsense syllables of each system resource.” (Dennis and Glaser, 1965, were presented on an optical retina in a fixed p. 14).

point fixed position set-up, there would be a re"Computers must be designed which allow the quirement for recognizing (26) or about 104 difincremental addition of modular components, the ferent patterns. If three sequential classification use by many processors of high speed random decisions were performed on the three letters

p. 82).


[ocr errors]

p. 108).




of the nonsense word only 3(26) or 78 different simultaneously (e.g., magneto-hydrodynamic patterns would be involved.

problems or pattern recognition). “In the above simple example converting from (3) The computer's structure and behavior can, purely parallel logic to partially sequential process. with simple generalizations, be formulated in a ing reduced the machine complexity by two order(s)

way that provides a formal basis for theoretical of magnitude. The trend is typical and may involve study of automata with changing structure much larger numbers in a more complicated prob- (cf. the relation between Turing machines !em. Using both parallel and sequential logic as and computable numbers).” (Holland, 1959, design tools the designer is able to trade-off time versus size and so has an extra degree of freedom

5.93 ... The development of the Illiac III in developing his system.” (Daly et al., 1962, pp. 23-24).

computer, which incorporates a 'pattern articulation 5.92 The SOLOMON concept proposed

unit' (PAU) specifically designed for performing by Slotnick at Westinghouse. Here it is planned

local operations in parallel, on pictures or similar that as many as a thousand independent simple

arrays." (Pfaltz et al., 1968, p. 354). processors be made to operate in parallel under “One of the modules of the proposed ILLIAC III an instruction from a network sequencer." (Fern

will be designed as a list processor for interpreting bach, 1965, p. 82).

the list structure representation of bubble chamber “Both the Solomon and Holland machines belong photographs.” (Wigington, 1963, p. 707). to a growing class of so-called 'iterative machines'. 5.94 "I use this term ['firmware'] to designate These machines are structured with many identical, microprograms resident in the computer's control and often interacting, elements.

memory, which specializes the logical design for a “The Solomon machine resulted from the

special purpose, e.g., the emulation of another study of a number of problems whose solution computer. I project a tremendous expansion of procedures call for similar operations over many firmware - obviously at the expense of hardware pieces of data. The Solomon system contains, but also at the expense of software. essentially, a memory unit, an instruction unit,

“Once the production of microprogrammed comand an array of execution units. Each individual

puters was commenced, a further area of hardwareexecution unit works on a small part of a large

software interaction was opened via microprogramproblem. All of the execution units are identical,

ming. For example, more than one set of microso that all can operate simultaneously under

programs can be supplied with one computer. A control of the single instruction unit.

second set might provide for execution of the order “Holland, on the other hand, has proposed

set of a different computer - perhaps one of the a fully distributed network of processors. Each

second generation. Additional microprogram sets processor has its own local control, local storage,

might take over certain functions of software local processing ability, and local ability to control

systems as simulators, compilers and control propathfinding to other processors in the network.

grams. Provided that the microsteps remain a small Since all processors are capable of independent

fraction of a main memory access cycle, microoperation, the topology leads to the concept of

programming is certain to influence future software ‘programs floating in a sea of hardware?.” (Hudson,

design.” (Opler, 1966, p. 1759). 1968, p. 42).

"The SOLOMON (Simultaneous Operation "Incompatibility between logic and memory Linked Ordinal MOdulator Network), a parallel

speeds . . . has also led to the introduction of network computer, is a new system involving microprogramming, in which instruction execution the interconnections and programming, under

is controlled by a read-only memory. The fast the supervision of a central control unit, of many

access time of this memory allows full use of the identical processing elements (as few or as many

speed capabilities offered by the fast logic." (Pyke, as a given problem requires), in an arrangement

1967, p.161). that can simulate directly the problem being “A microprogrammed control section utilizes solved.” (Slotnick et al., 1962, p. 97).

a macroinstruction to address the first word of

series of microinstructions contained in an “Three features of the computer are:

internal, comparatively fast, control memory. (1) The structure of the computer is a 2-dimen- These microinstructions are then decoded much

sional modular (or iterative) network so that, normal instructions are in wired-in control if it were constructed, efficient use could be machines ..." (Briley, 1965, p. 93). made of the high element density and 'temp- "The microprogrammed

controller concept late' techniques now being considered in has been used to implement the IBM 2841 Storage research on microminiature elements.

Control Unit, by means of which random access (2) Sub-programs can be spatially organized and storage devices may be connected to a System/360

can act simultaneously, thus facilitating the central processor. Because of its microprogram simulation or direct control of highly-parallel implementation, the 2841

accommodate systems with many points or parts interacting an unusually wide variety of devices, including

[ocr errors]





two kinds of disk storage drive, a data cell drive, and a drum.” (McGee and Petersen, 1965, p. 78).

"In microprogram control, the functions of the controller [for source experimental data automation) are vested in a microprogram which is stored in a control memory. The microprogram is made up of microinstructions which are fetched in sequence from memory and executed. The microinstructions control a very general type of hardware configuration, so that merely by changing the microprogram, the functions available in the controller can be made to range between wide limits." (McGee and Petersen, 1965, p. 78).

5.95 "The computer science community has not recognized (let alone faced up to) the problem of anticipating and dealing with very large individual

differences in performing tasks involving mancomputer communications for the general public.” (Sackman, et al., 1968, pp. 9-10).

5.96 “The dynamic nature of multiprogram on-line computation should have a strong influence on memory organization.” (Lock, 1965, p. 471).

' “The tradeoffs in speed, cost, logic complexity, and technology are inherent to the design of systems and are not separable in spite of the good intentions of the semiconductor manufacturers or the abstract logicians.” (Howe, 1965, p. 506).

5.97 “I cannot emphasize too strongly the interdependence of hardware and software (the statements of procedures, implementation of which in a given equipment configuration constitutes the processing capability).” (Schultz, 1967, p. 20).

[ocr errors]

6. Advanced Hardware Developments

[ocr errors]

6.1 “It will be necessary to scan the photo- while a laser beam can operate in air and be the chromic plane very quickly and accurately, with an source of light directly. ... extremely fine pinpoint of light. Lockheed Elec- “The major significance of the laser in a display tronics has been exploring a method of rapidly system is that all of the energy is usable since the deflecting a laser beam, nonmechanically, in two apparent source of this light is a diffraction-limited dimensions. The technique is based on refraction point-dipole radiator. Conventional light sources of the beam by acoustic energy." (Reich and such as tungsten filament or a mercury arc are quite Dorion, 1965, p. 573).

wasteful since light is emitted into a 360-degree 6.2 “Laser holography is finding some practical solid angle from a relatively large area. When these applications. Technical Operations, Inc., of Burling- light sources are used to illuminate the limited aperton, Mass., says it has delivered what is believed to ture of a practical optical system, only a small fracbe the first operational holography equipment to tion of the emitted light is used.” (Baker and Rugari, Otis Air Force Base in Massachusetts, where it will 1966, p. 37). be used to photograph fog in three dimensions." 6.7 “Since the polarization of the light can be (Electronics 38, No. 20, 25 (1965).)

electro-optically switched in nanoseconds, the 6.3 “A work horse of unsuspected power was inherent speed of the electro-optic effect does not harnessed in 1960 when the first operating laser was limit the rate of data projection. However, in pracdemonstrated at Hughes Research Laboratories.”

tice the rate is limited by dissipation in the deflection (“The Lavish Laser”, 1966, p. 15).

elements and by the stored-energy requirements of "The first device to be successfully operated was the associated circuitry. Therefore the voltage a pulsed ruby laser.” (Baker and Rugari, 1966, p. 37). across the half-wave plate and the loss tangent of the Further reference is to Maiman, 1960.

dielectric are important parameters." (Soref and 6.4 "Gas lasers are the most monochromatic,

McMahon, 1965, p. 59). fluorescent crystal lasers are the most powerful, 6.8 “Coherent light from lasers will provide a while semiconductor lasers are the smallest, the revolutionary increase in the volume of communicamost efficient and can be directly modulated." tion that can be sent over a single pathway.” (Gordon, 1965, p. 61).

(McMains, 1966, p. 28). 6.5 This area of technological development has “In communications the laser can far surpass conalready received such a responsive interest, in ventional facilities. Operating on frequencies many general, that Lowry-Cocroft Abstracts, Evanston, times higher than radio, it can carry many times as Illinois, provides a punched card abstracts service much information. In fact, one laser beam could in the field of laser developments.

carry thousands of TV signals at once. Experiments 6.6 “The development of the laser as a practical, now under way with lasers enclosed in large pipes continuous, coherent light source has created a new indicate their wide employment for mass comdisplay technology, that of the laser-beam display. munications for the future.” (“The Lavish Laser”, This type display can be considered to be analogous 1966, p. 16). to well-known electron-beam type displays, e.g., the “As man goes farther away from the earth in cathode ray tube and the liquid-light valve. The space exploration, laser communication will become primary difference is that the electron beam is more important, because the problems of power constrained to a vacuum environment and requires supply and background noise besetting conventional a special screen for the emission or control of light microwaves at distances beyond the moon will be


[ocr errors]


minimized. In an example of speed comparison, studies that involve moving unpredictable phe. eight hours were required to transmit the pictures nomena of either uncertain or changing location. from Mars, but a laser beam could carry even televi- Physical applications include terminal and insion images across the same distance in a few Alight ballistics, aerosol-size distributions, cloud minutes." ("The Lavish Laser", 1966, p. 16). physics, studies of sprays, and combustion and

“The laser, with its extremely narrow beam due rocket-exhaust studies, among others.” (Stephens, to its short wavelength, notwithstanding its high 1967, p. 26). quantum and background noise- offers the pos- “Recently at Boulder, Colo., Michael McClintock sibility of surpassing RF techniques in its ability to of the NBS Institute for Basic Standards used an satisfy deep-space requirements.” (Brookner et al., argon laser as a source to obtain and analyze the 1967, p. 75).

Raman and Rayleigh spectra in several transparent In terms of immediate practicality, however, liquids . . . His mathematical evaluation of the experiments in the use of laser techniques for data experimental data related scattered light spectra to transmission have been limited to very short dis

viscosity, to molecular rotation and vibration, and to tances. For example, "television signals have been

certain molecular concentrations in mixtures of two transmitted on laser beams for distances of the order

unassociated liquids. Analysis of the Raman of a mile in clear weather ...” (Gordon, 1965, p. spectrum also provided. new data on molecular 60), and “the Lincoln Laboratory developed an coupling .. optical communications system based on an array “In general, the beam from an argon ion laser was of multiple semiconductor lasers that propagates first passed through a dispersing prism to eliminate pulses through a 1.8-mile path in most weather all but the 4880-angstrom radiation. The light was conditions." (Swanson, 1967, p. 38).

then examined from various angles by a spectromGoettel therefore concludes that "years of con

eter. Photomultiplier tubes served to increase the tinued research remain before an economical laser

intensity of the spectral lines so that they could be transmission system becomes a reality.” (Goettel,

recorded.” (“Laser Applied to Molecular Kinetics 1966, p. 193).

Studies”, 1968, p. 242). 6.9 "Scientists from the Honeywell Research

6.11 “A very special hologram, called a spatial Center in Minneapolis say that optical techniques filter, has the capability of comparing two patterns provide a means for increasing information storage

and producing a signal which is a function of the cordensity above the levels obtainable with current

relation or similarity of the patterns. Experimentally, technology. A memory element under development

it has been found that complicated, natural objects will permit over two million bits of information to be

with irregular patterns can be recognized with stored on a surface the size of a dime. The informa

greater confidence than can man-made objects tion can be read at the rate of 100 million bits per

which tend to be geometrically symmetrical. second using a low power-1 milliwatt — laser.”

Fingerprints, because of their randomness, appear (Bus. Automation 13, No. 12, 69 (Dec. 1967).)

to be ideal objects for the spatial filtering method 6.10 "The laser will transform Raman spectros- of recognition ... copy from a time-consuming tool of limited useful.

“The spatial filtering method of fingerprint recog. to an important analytical technique; for example, the hour-long exposures of Raman spectra

nition has several advantages over other methods

of recognition. on photographic plates are eliminated. Raman spectroscopy with gas-laser beams should have wide- “Recognition is instantaneous, limited only by spread application in analytical chemistry and solid- the mechanical pattern input mechanism. state physics.” (Bloembergen, 1967, p. 85).

“Partial prints can be recognized. As long as the "The microscopic electrified fluid streams studied information which is available does correlate, occur at high speed, and are virtually impossible to recognition will take place even though one of the record with a conventional optical microscope or two patterns being compared is incomplete. This imaging system. In order to overcome the working. property is especially advantageous when you distance and depth-of-field limitations of the clas- are attempting to correlate partial latent prints sical microscope, a two-step imaging process

with complete recorded prints." (Horvath et al., (holographic photomicroscopy) of high resolution 1967, pp. 485, 488). was developed and applied to the study of the 6.12 "A laser image processing scanner (LIPS), electrostatic charging process. In this technique, able for the first time to quantize high resolution one first records the optical interference pattern of photographs for computer manipulation, has been the 'scene', and then uses this record to reconstruct developed by CBS Laboratories . . . and accepted the original scene. The reconstructed scene can be by the Air Force ... LIPS can simultaneously leisurely examined with conventional optical digitize a developed high-resolution photograph systems of limited object volume

from a negative and produce a much more detailed “The practical consequences of pulsed laser negative from the computer image adjacent to holographic photomicroscopy go beyond the re- the original on the same drum. This makes it much quirements of the present application. Reasonable easier for a photo interpreter to recognize important projection would indicate application to scientific details ...







"The Air Force system

a commercial helium-neon gas laser to produce black and white images ... However, color

However, color photos could be produced by substituting an argon ion laser system ...

"Elements of LIPS include a laser light source focused on a five microns spot size on the negative being digitized in turn feeding into a linearly scanning microdensitometer and a computer buffer storage.

"On reconstruction of the higher quality negative on the same drum, the same laser is employed in combination with an optical modulator in duplicate scanning ..." (Electronic News 14, No. 714, 38 June 23, 1969).)

“When the Air Force permitted CBS Labs to talk about its high-resolution laser-scanning system (part of Compass Link) used to transmit reconnaissance photos from Vietnam to the Pentagon in minutes (Electronics, April 14, p. 56), CBS officials were optimistic about the possibility of broader applications. A step in that direction has been taken with the modification of the laser scanner so that it can convert high-resolution photos for handling by a computer.

"Called LIPS-laser image processing scanner the system digitizes the image, then feeds the signal through a buffer to an IBM 360/40 computer. The computer processes the picture to emphasize fine details or improve the contrast. The reconstructed image is then read out of the computer onto photographic film. Thus, LIPS enables the photo interpreter to manipulate his picture to bring out any desired detail with a high degree of resolution.

“Routine work. In operation, the interpreter tells the computer what areas he wants emphasized. For example, he could call for a routine that would bring out high-frequency detail. If the finished picture were unsatisfactory he could go to a routine that not only would emphasize highfrequency detail, but also would suppress or clean up large areas of black.

“LIPS uses a sequential scan to attain a resolution of 100 lines per millimeter. It can digitize, or record from digital data, a 1.8-centimeter-square area in 15 minutes; that's at least twice as fast as conventional scanners such as those used on the Ranger moon probes.

“CBS says the advantages of LIPS-high resolution and geometric fidelity, high-speed readwrite rates, and operation in standard room lightingcan be used by map makers, meteorologists, or news organizations.” (Electronics 42, No. 13, 46

( June 23, 1969)).

6.13 “Laser photographs, called holograms, are true three-dimensional representations, and the process of holography not only provides a means for lensless microscopy but may make possible microscopic systems at wavelengths where lenses

not now available.” (“The Lavish Laser”, 1966, p. 15).

“The original idea of holography and specifically, spatial filtering dates back to 1886 when Ernst Abbe suggested their existence. However, it remained for Dennis Gabor to show in 1951 that a hologram, which has little recognizable information could be 'reconstructed to a normal recognizable image. Various other workers showed his analysis to be correct. Spatial filtering was investigated at about the same time by Marechal and others primarily as a means of improving photographic images. These pioneers demonstrated that the concepts of holography and spatial filtering would work, but they were handicapped by the lack of a strong source of coherent light. The advent of the laser in 1960 as a source of essentially a single wavelength of light excited new interest in the field of holography. Scientists at General Electric demonstrated the feasibility of using a two-beam holographic spatial filter as a means for recognizing patterns. A. Vander Lugt, at the University of Michigan, also investigated methods by which twobeam spatial filters could be produced.” (Horvath et al., 1967, p. 485).

“Laser beams will be used to print the catalogs and newspapers of the future using a new technique developed by Radio Corporation of America. Announcement of the development of the technique that can eliminate the need to print in signatures was made last month by the company. The method uses the intense light produced by the laser to fuse powdered ink spread over the paper to reproduce the original. Excess ink is removed by vacuum.

“The image comes from a photograph of the material to be printed-half-tones, line drawing or newspaper page-on a transparency. The image

is transferred with the aid of a laser beam to a hologram or lensless photograph which serves as a permanent plate. A separate hologram is used for each page.

“Dr. Kenneth H. Fishbeck, a technical advisor at the David Sarnoff Research Center, Princeton, N.J., and holder of the patent, said publishers will be able to eliminate signatures since the new process reproduces pages in sequence, from title to index. He claims publishers could almost print on demand." (SPIE Glass 5, No. 1, 12 (June 1969)).

6.14 “Dillon et al. have proposed and operated a limited-population memory using a ferramagnetic garnet and driven by a laser beam.” (Kump and Chang, 1966, p. 255; see also Dillon et al., 1964).

6.15 Reimann reports that: “The neuristor laser computer, conceived at RCA, is an 'alloptical computer in which all information and control signals are in the form of optical energy

"A theoretical study of the neuristor concept in form of Fiberglas lasers concluded that the fundamental requirements of a neuristor line could, at least in principle, be met with lasers ...

"The main result of the laser neuristor feasibility

376-411 0 - 70.7

« PreviousContinue »