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which regulate the proceedings of committees of the whole? The particulars, in which these differ from proceedings in the House, are the following-1. In a committee, every member may speak as often as he pleases.-2. The votes of a committee may be rejected or altered when reported to the House.-3. A committee, even of the whole, cannot refer any matter to another committee.-4. In a committee, no previous question can be taken: the only means to avoid an improper discussion, is to move that the committee rise: and if it be apprehended that the same discussion will be attempted on returning into committee, the House can discharge them, and proceed itself on the business, keeping down the improper discussion by the previous question.-5. A committee cannot punish a breach of order, in the House, or in the gallery.-9 Grey, 113; it can only rise and report it to the House, who may proceed to punish. The 1st and 2d of these peculiarites attach to the quasi-committee of the Senate, as every day's practice proves; and seem to be the only ones to which the 28th rule meant to subject them for it continues. to be a House, and therefore, though it acts in some respects as a committee, in others it preserves its character as a House. Thus, 3d. It is in the daily habit of referring its business to a special committee. -4th. It admits the previous question: if it did not, it would have no means of preventing an improper discussion; not being able, as the
committee is, to avoid it by returning into the House for the moment if would resume the same subject there, the 20th rule declares it again a quasi-committee.-5th. It would doubtless exercise its powers as a House on any breach of order.-6th. It takes a question by Yea and Nay, as the House does.-7th. It receives messages from the President, and the other House.--8th. In the midst of a debate, it receives a motion to adjourn, and adjourns as a House, not as a committee.
BILL, SECOND READING IN THE HOUSE.
In Parliament, after the bill has been read a second time, if, on the motion and question, it be not committed, or if no proposition for commitment be made, the Speaker reads it by paragraphs, pausing between each, but putting no question but on amendments proposed; and when through the whole, he puts the question, Whether it shall be read a third time? if it came from the other House. Or, if originating with themselves, Whether it shall be engrossed and read a third time? The Speaker reads sitting, but rises to put a question. The clerk stands while he reads.
But the Senate of the United States is so much in the habit of making many and material amendments at the third reading, that it has become the practice not to engross a bill till it has passed. An irregular and dangerous practice; because, in this way, the paper which passes the Senate is not that which goes to the other House; and that which goes to the other House as the act of the Senate, has never been seen in Senate. In reducing numerous, difficult, and illegible amendments into the text, the Secretary may, with the most innocent intentions, commit errors, which can never again be corrected.*
The bill being now as perfect as its friends can make it, this is the proper stage for those, fundamentally opposed, to make their first attack. All attempts at other periods are with disjointed efforts; because many who do not ex
*This difficulty has since been obviated by the following Rule of the Senate:
"The final question, upon the second reading of every bill, resolution, constitutional amendment, or motion, originating in the Senate, and requiring three readings previous to being passed, shall be, "Whether it shall be engrossed and read a third time? and no amendment shall be received for discussion at the third reading of any bill, resolution, amendment, or motion, unless by unanimous consent of the members present: but it shall at all times be in order, before the final passage of any such bill, resolution, constitutional amendment, or motion, to move its commitment; and should such commitment take place, and any amendment be reported by the committee, the said bill, resolution, constitutional amendment, or motion, shall be again read a second time, and considered as in committee of the whole, and then the aforesaid question shall be again put."-Rule 29.
pect to be in favour of the bill, ultimately, are willing to let it go on to its perfect state, to take time to examine it themselves, and to hear what can be said for it; knowing that, after all, they have sufficient opportunities of giving it their veto. Its two last stages, therefore, are reserved for this, that is to say, on the question, Whether it shall be engrossed and read a third time? and lastly, Whether it shall pass? The first of these is usually the most interesting contest; because then the whole subject is new and engaging, and the minds of the members having not yet been declared by any trying vote, the issue is the more doubtful. In this stage, therefore, is the main trial of strength between its friends and opponents; and it behoves every one to make up his mind decisively for this question, or he loses the main battle; and accident and management may, and often do, prevent a successful rallying on the next and last question, Whether it shall pass?
When the bill is engrossed, the title is to be endorsed on the back, and not within the bill.— Hakew. 250.
Where papers are laid before the House, or referred to a committee, every member has a right to have them once read at the table, before he can be compelled to vote on them. But it is a great, though common error, to suppose that he has a right, toties quoties, to have acts, journals, accounts, or papers, on the table, read independently of the will of the House. The delay and interruption which this might be made. to produce, evince the impossibility of the existence of such a right. There is indeed so manifest a propriety of permitting every member to have as much information as possible on every question on which he is to vote, that when he desires the reading, if it be seen that it is really for information, and not for delay, the Speaker directs it to be read without putting a question, if no one objects. But if objected to, a question must be put.-2 Huts. 117, 118.
It is equally an error to suppose, that any member has a right, without a question put, to lay a book or paper on the table, and have it read, on suggesting that it contains matter infringing on the privileges of the House.-2 Huts. 117, 118.
For the same reason, a member has not a right