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The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the place of choosing Senators.-Const. U. S. Art. I. Sec. 4.
Each House shall be the judge of the elections, rcturns, and qualifications of its own members.-Const. U. S. Art. I. Sec. 5.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one
Immediately after they shall be assembled, in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the end of the second year; of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class, at the expiration
of the sixth year; so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments, until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
No person shall be a Senator, who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen Const. Ü. S. Art. I. Sec. 3.
The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States; and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.
No person shall be a Representative, who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand; but each State shall have at least one Representative.—Const. U. S. Art. 1. Sec. 2.
The provisional apportionments of Representatives made in the Constitution in 1787, and afterwards by Congress, were as follows:
* The Act of 22d May, 1832, fixes the ratio at one for forty-seven thousand seven hundred.
106 142 186 213 224
When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.-Const. U. S. Art. I. Sec. 2.
No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person, holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either House, during his continuance in office. -Const. U. S. Art. I. Sec. 6.
A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.--Const. U. S Art. 1. Sec. 5.
In general, the chair is not to be taken till a quorum for business is present; unless after due waiting, such a quorum be despaired of, when the chair may be taken, and the House adjourned. And whenever, during business, it is observed that a quorum is not present, any member may call for the House to be counted: and being found deficient, business is suspended.—2 Hats. 125, 126.
The President having taken the chair, and a quorum being present, the journal of the preceding day shall be read, to the end, that any mistake may be corrected that shall have been made in the entries.-Rules of the Senate 1.
CALL OF THE HOUSE.
On a call of the House, each person rises up as he is called, and answereth; the absentees are then only noted, but no excuse to be made till the House be fully called over. Then the absentees are called a second time, and if still absent, excuses are to be heard.-Ord. H. of C.
92. They rise, that their persons may be recognized; the voice, in such a crowd, being an insufficient verification of their presence. But in so small a body as the Senate of the United States, the trouble of rising cannot be necessary.
Orders for calls on different days may subsist at the same time.-2 Hats. 72.
No member shall absent himself from the service of the Senate without leave of the Senate first obtained. And in case a less number than a quorum of the Senate shall convene, they are hereby authorized to send the sergeant-at-arms, or any other person or persons by them authorized, for any or all absent members, as the majo rity of such members present shall agree, at the expense of such absent members, respectively, unless such excuse for non-attendance shall be made, as the Senate,