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1. There is a definite disagreement with vector-meson dominance.
2. This is not very surprising because in the case of real photons, total cross sections do not exactly follow VMD. How this break-down depends on the "off-shellness" of the photon is not known at all. (Remember that this inelastic electron scattering experiment sums over all possible interactions of the virtual photons consistent with the kinematics of the experiment, hence a total cross section for virtual photons is being measured.)
3. Theoretical analysis of this effect is in a very preliminary stage.
7. Shadowing Effects in Neutrino Reactions on Nuclei
In the following experiment (see K. Borer et al.  and also J. S. Bell [S3]) no shadowing was observed:
The incident beam was: the CERN neutrino beam which has a very broad spectrum, so the incident energy was poorly defined but, just to give some idea, the average neutrino energy was about 1.5-2.0 GeV and the width of the spectrum was about 1.5 GeV.
In a spark chamber set-up one could see muons produced, one could also see in which material the reaction took place, and one could make a rough measurement of the muon momentum. The following results were obtained (0 is the angle of the outgoing μ)
2. Again, for reasons somewhat similar to the case of electron scattering a lack of shadowing is not surprising (for more details of the theoretical analysis, see the lecture by J. S. Bell in ref. [S3]). 3. The theoretical analysis is at a very primitive stage and when the data improves a lot will remain to be done.
The author wishes to thank I. M. Eisenberg for making his visit to the University of Virginia possible. He also thanks the students who took this course for their responsive attitude which was of great help. The help and encouragement from L. C. Maximon are also gratefully acknowledged. If not for him these lecture notes would have never been completed.
8. List of Standard References
[S1] High Energy Physics and Nuclear Structure, Ed. S. Devons (Plenum Press, 1970).
[S2] Glauber, R. J., High Energy Collision Theory, in Lectures in Theoretical Physics, Ed. W. E. Brittin and L. G. Dunham (Interscience Pub., 1959).
[S3] Hadronic Interactions of Electrons and Photons, Ed., J. Cumming and H. Osborn (Academic Press, 1971). [S4] Diffractive Production Processes at High Energies, Ed., W. Czyż, Acta.Physica Polonica B3, #6 (1972). [S5] Proceedings 1971 International Symposium on Electron and Photon Interactions at High Energies, Cornell University, Ed., N. B. Mistry, Cornell, 1971.
[S6] Landau, L. D., and Lifshitz, E. M., Quantum Mechanics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964).
[S7] Bjorken, J. D., and Drell, S. D., Relativistic Quantum Mechanics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964).
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 Cheng, H., and Wu, T. T., Phys. Rev. D3, 2394 (1971). The same results were obtained independently by J. Jurkiewicz and communicated to the author (unpublished).
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16. ABSTRACT (A 200-word or less factual summary of most significant information. If document includes a significant bibliography or literature survey, mention it here.)
Elastic scattering and diffractive production processes induced in nuclear targets by high energy projectiles are discussed in this article. Special attention is paid to the interaction of high energy hadrons and photons. Interactions of high energy electrons and neutrinos are briefly mentioned. The common features of all these processes are emphasized throughout the article: The multiple scattering and shadowing processes inside of the target nuclei. An effort is made to develop a unified way of treating nuclear interactions of particles which are either hadrons or exhibit some hadronic components in such interactions.
This article is divided into five sections: 1) Introduction, 2) Description of multiple scattering, 3) Elastic scattering of hadrons from nuclei, 4) Diffractive dissociation and diffractive excitation, 5) Diffractive production of hadrons in hadron-nucleon collisions.
17. KEY WORDS (six to twelve entries; alphabetical order; capitalize only the first letter of the first key word unless a proper name; separated by semicolons)
Diffractive production; diffractive scattering; Glauber model; hadronic components of photons; high energy scattering; multiple scattering; neutrino-nucleus interactions; shadowing effects.