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Not for him is it to tell the profession of medicine what it should prescribe, but he docs take a care to have perfectly good and workable standards for everything apt to be called for. The physician who wants to prescribe Acetylparaminophenyl Salicylate, the one who wants Tr. Digit., and the "old chap" who wants Antiperiodic Tincture (a mixture of rhubarb, angelica, inula, saffron, fennel, gentian, zedoary, cubeb, myrrh, camphor, agaric, pepper, cinnamon, ginger, quinine, aloes and alcohol), can each have any or all by neat and legal standard, signed, sealed and delivered.
OBJECTIONS TO THE PHARMACOPOEIA.
Some gentlemen believe that the U. S. P. should be inclusive only of such drugs as have a true basis in pharmacology, while others believe the book should be a standard for practically everything in the line of drugs. We believe that, on the whole, the Revision Committee has done well, and this opinion is based upon a most careful study of the work. Of course, Doctor, there are many drugs therein that you do not use, and there are a great many that I do not use, but many physicians use these very substances we fail to appreciate. As a standard of the drugs that are, the U. S. P. Revision Committee must be guided by returns from the whole United States, not by the opinions of a few research men. That they have been so guided should serve to popularize the work among physicians at large.
THE NATIONAL FORMULARY.
We have never been enthusiastic over the N. F., probably because of an ingrowing predilection against combination tablets, stock elixirs, and shot-gun pharmacy in general. Nevertheless we know perfectly well that there are many combinations. in wide use by men who are very successful in practice. The new N. F., on the whole, makes wise selection from among the host of formulæ, and it is a great improvement over its predecessor.
The N. F. is now practically a secondary list for the Pharmacopoeia, including such drugs as aletris, asclepias, castanea, conium, dulcamara, leptandra, quinidine, scoparius, and xanthoxylum-all drugs that "won't down" in the opinion of thousands of estimable medical practitioners; and the N. F. is no longer a mere list of elixirs, etc., designed to imitate more or less prominent proprietary products. Within its bounds, the new N. F. is just as scientific and discriminating as is the new U. S. P.
Not one of us know enough to prepare an acceptable pharmacopoeia or formulary. Such books must serve the physicians and pharmacists of the whole country, inclusive of "many men of many minds;" so let us accept our national standards in the spirit in which they were prepared. Of course they might be improved upon, and will be at the next revision; but, though admittedly imperfect, they are the most elaborate and satisfactory set of drug standards in the world today, and we ought to be proud of that fact.
WE SHALL USE OUR STANDARDS.
The national standards are part of the law of the land; they are good enough for the Federal Government, and they ought to be good enough for us. In truth, they are good enough. If the physicians at large were to be by law compelled to prescribe none other but the products described in these books (which, of course, we would not favor), clinical results would be immensely improved. But the individual physician. without any compulsion, will find it distinctly to his advantage and to the advantage. of his patients to study the three works which are our standards, N. N. R., however, not having legal recognition.
Permit one little "fling" in conclusion. No "combination tablets" are official, even though they are, one hundred times over, the most popular form of pharmaceutical among dispensing physicians. These tablets, or most of them, are utterly unscientific, and we all know they are. Despite popularity, the Revisers left them out. Good for the Revisers! They have done the medical profession a positive service. -Editorial in Medical Council.
HINTS ON THE SALE OF GOGGLES BY RETAIL DRUGGISTS.*
BY DR. FREDERICK WILLSON.
The subject upon which we have been invited to speak this afternoon has two aspects namely, the scientific and the commercial. It is in keeping with the high ideals of your own organization that the former should receive first attention. Throughout this paper, we shall discuss the proper selection and sale of goggles only. By goggles, we mean any glass or spectacle used to protect the eyes.
Generally speaking, goggles may be grouped into three main divisions:
1st. For protection after the placing of atropine in the eyes (for mydriatic use), or for inflamed eyes.
2nd. For protection against sun glare, dust, small-insects and currents of air in rapid motion.
3rd. For industrial eye protection to reduce to a minimum the danger from flying particles, dust, glare, heat, etc.
The fitting of spectacles for the correction of refractive defects of the eye is a special branch of optical work, calling for a considerable amount of technical training. Some pharmacists have this training and are thus fitted to be refractionists, but those who have not, would be wise to restrict their attention to the sale of protection goggles. We do not advocate the sale of correction spectacles as ordinary merchandise. With the growth of general education in the care of the eye few persons will feel safe in fitting themselves with correction spectacles, and hence, the sale of such glasses as merchandise has a doubtful future.
To resume our discussion of the various types of protection goggles, we will consider first those used for the protection of inflamed eyes and for mydriatic purposes. The lenses of such a goggle should be gray-smoked in color, about No. 5 shade and about five-eighths inch or one and three-fourths inch in diameter. Gray smoked is used in preference to other colors, as under these conditions it is necessary to place before the patient's eye a screen that will reduce the brilliancy of ordinary lightfog the vision, as we say-thus eliminating strain upon the retina, which is especially sensitive after treatment or when the eye is inflamed. It is important that the proper shade of smoke be used and that the lenses be free from imperfections.
The construction of the frame should be such that the goggle can be easily adjusted to fit comfortably over ordinary glasses and to enable the lenses to be so placed as to prevent the entrance of light between their edges and the sides of the nose. The temples, or ear bows, should be of the flexible cable variety, which will not pull or cut the ears.
It is highly important that you should handle such a line for distribution to oculists and their patients.
* Read before Penna. Ph. A., 1916.
In our class two, are included all types of goggles suitable for protection against sun glare, dust, small insects, and rapidly passing currents of air. This class may be sub-divided into two groups:
1st. Those with side guards for complete protection.
2nd. Those affording protection in front only.
The first group includes all types of so-called side shield goggles, the purpose of which is to protect the eye upon all sides. These are used principally by automobilists, motor-cyclists, aviators, etc.
Adjustability, either automatic or by the wearer, is essential in connection with a side shield goggle, for when it does not fit properly, fine particles and currents of air will be swept around the lenses into the eyes. An improperly fitting goggle is never comfortable. It should conform to the curves of the face, to be capable of being worn over correction glasses and rest lightly, but firmly, upon the sides of the nose and the upper part of the cheeks.
When temples or ear bows are used, they should be flexible or cable wound to prevent cutting the tender skin back of the ears. Some styles of goggles are held in place by head bands or straps attached to the free end of the side shields and passing around the back of the head; these are seldom comfortable and the elastic soon deteriorates.
The second group includes all styles of goggles, either eye glasses or spectacles, without side guards. These afford a smaller degree of protection, of course, than the other types and are used principally to reduce glare.
In all of these types, the main consideration will naturally be the color of the glass. About this, the thoughtful pharmacist should know considerably more than his customer so as to protect his patrons from the possible mistake of selecting a pair of goggles for the sake of appearance alone.
Glare, or the white light that we ordinarily encounter out of doors, is composed, as you know, of red, yellow, orange which is a combination of red and yellowgreen, blue and violet rays. These in themselves are not particularly harmful, but we find the ultra-violet rays at the cool end of the spectrum and the infra-red rays at the warm end, which are invisible, but harmful to the eyes. The least injurious are the infra-red. The wave lengths of the ultra-violet are approximately one-half that of the infra-red rays.
In nature, green and yellow are the colors that predominate and in combination are most restful to the eyes. Situated in about the center of the spectrum, we may say that they strike a happy medium between hot and cold rays. A green lens filters out all but the green rays allowing those to pass through, while a yellow lens acts similarly upon yellow rays. Therefore, a lens yellow-green in color is found to be desirable for use in glare glasses and goggles, and amber is especially good. Red is useful only in the photographic dark room and is not suitable for outside wear because of the heat rays it admits. Certain shades of blue are particularly trying, because of their irritating qualities.
Care should be exercised to prevent the tendency of the purchaser to select a goggle with too intense shade. The main consideration is the proper color rather than the density of the shade.
The quality of the lenses is very important. Do not use deeply curved or coquille glass, as it is usually liable to aberration or surface errors. The best moderate priced material is slightly curved glass. Flat lenses, if carefully ground and polished, are excellent, but not generally appreciated by the buying public.
The selection of a suitable style of frame is worthy of considerable attention. The customer's requirements will help to determine this. If he wants a goggle for automobiling or for any purpose requiring complete protection, a side shield style is essential. The frame may be of metal, either German silver, optical bronze, nickel plated steel, or imitation shell, the latter being particularly good if a light weight goggle is desired and if the wear will not be too severe. The side shields may be of leather, fine wire mesh or imitation shell, according to the construction of the frame. The bridge, or nose piece, should be adjustable in the case of metal frames. Flexible silk bridges, which automatically adjust the goggle when put on, are excellent and are used with both metal and shell frames. The metal framed style should permit the removal of lenses by loosening the small screws in the end piece where the two halves of the eye frame join. This makes repairs easy and inexpensive.
Ordinary sun or glare glasses are made of the same materials as the style previously mentioned. It is largely a matter of personal taste on the part of the customer whether he should wear metal or shell styles. Of course, those made of metal are more durable, but with reasonable care the shell styles last equally as long and have the advantage of being lighter in weight and of more 'distinctive appearance.
The salesman should study his customer and offer suitable styles. It is a good plan to have a small mirror on the counter where your goggle stock is displayed so that your customer may see himself as others see him. A skillful salesman will not attempt to sell a pair of goggles with large lenses to a customer of small physique. He should strive to suit the style to the face, for certain styles are better adapted than others to particular types of faces. It is not an intentional pun to say that a sense of fitness should be observed.
Aim to add service to your sale and hence develop the appreciation of quality on the part of your customers and then they will come back. Little attentions, such as care to the proper fit and adjustment, are appreciated and take but little time. It is a very small matter to dip shell ear bows in hot water and bend them until the goggle is held snugly and comfortably against the face. A little twist to a cable temple will often make the necessary difference in adjustment.
The third division may be headed, "Goggles for Industrial Use." There are special types for various kinds of work. It is hardly possible to suit any one design. to all industrial requirements. Perfect adaptation should be the aim and frequently the loss of an eye or total blindness is the result of the use of an improper goggle.
Some of the fields of labor covered by industrial glasses are iron and steel workers, including chippers, furnacemen, welders, rolling mill operators, molders, grinders, cupola men, machinists and chemists. Miners, railroad men and others are also taken care of. One large manufacturer of office equipment uses goggles in their packing department to protect the workmen's eyes from flying nails and splinters.
The construction of industrial goggles is similar to that of ordinary protection goggles, but side shield styles predominate. The materials used are nickel plated steel, rust-proof white metal, leather, rubber, fiber, and, of course, glass. The frames are heaiver than those of glass goggles, to withstand hard usage. Adjustability is again an important matter and all industrial styles should be capable of being worn over correction glasses.
As in the case of regular glare glasses, the lenses are of vital importance. For use as a protection from glare, due to artificial light, before furnaces, over welding arcs, etc., cool shades are necessary. Colors, excluding red and violet rays, are sought and there are several excellent standard shades obtainable. A dark green smoke,
known as an industrial smoke, reducing the glare and cutting out the heat rays, at the same time enabling the wearer to see distinctly, is much in demand among the largest industrial plants.
A bifocal goggle, or one with two-color lenses, one-half clear and the other half colored (or two shades of the same color), is used to some extent. These are of value for welding and furnace work, but their use is largely a matter of preference.
Goggles held in place by head bands, while popular, seem to be less generally used than those with flexible cable temples.
One of the main difficulties encountered in catering to the industrial trade is the lack of general standardization of styles and colors. Practically every plant has its safety engineer, each of whom has his own pet ideas and theories, and many valuable ones, which must be thrashed out before you can convince him that there is a style ready-made to meet the difficulties he is going to overcome in a different manner. Do not infer from this that we depreciate the value of the safety engineer. He is quite as essential as the production engineer or efficiency man.
The lenses of safety glasses used as a protection from heavy chips and large particles, vary in thickness from 2.6 mm. to about 3.3 mm. They should be clear white, free from imperfections, and especially treated to resist sharp blows and to prevent shattering as far as possible. There is much talk about special glass that will stand theoretical tests, which, in a way, are useful, but any glass will break when hit with sufficient force. The important feature is what becomes of the pieces after they are broken. The most effective goggles of this type are so constructed as to hold the broken glass firmly in the frame. A narrow strip of metal, extending over the surface of the lens nearest the eye, makes it difficult to force pieces back and tends to throw the splinters forward, away from the eye.
The demand for these industrial styles can be developed readily in any industrial community. Many plants furnish goggles to their employees. In such cases, it is necessary to get in touch with the purchasing agent or safety engineer. Many individual sales can be made to workmen whose employers do not furnish them with goggles and not infrequently sales to plants may result from the transactions.
Having touched briefly upon the scientific aspect of this subject, we will give our attention to the commercial conditions. To the dealer, the most interesting of these is, of course, the profit. That depends entirely upon the line you handle and how you handle it. If you have the right goods, each pair of goggles should be sold at an approximate advance of 100% over the dealer's cost. Of course, while the Stevens-Ashurst Bill is being threshed out, the manufacturer can only suggest to the dealer what his selling price should be, but the wise manufacturer embodies the greatest value possible in his goods and makes his suggestions so attractive, nationally advertising the prices of his goods, that the wise dealer has but little reason for departing from his established prices and does so only at the expense of his profits.
In selling goggles, as in selling any line of merchandise, you will not move your stock unless you make some effort to do so. Goods hidden away, or placed in some inaccessible corner, will collect dust and lose interest on your investment. One of the most successful drug stores in Reading has devoted an entire window to the display of goggles upon several occasions and with excellent results, and they maintain a permanent display in a large show case near their soda fountain. The location of the inside display will have a most important bearing on your sales. In summer, a soda fountain is the most popular department of the store that has one. Display the goods that you want to sell where the most people will see them.