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It is being recommended that the parking fee at stations in subsequent phases be in inverse relationship with the distance from the Down town, and that the actual parking fee be established by the Board of Directors at a later date. It is also understood that a separate parking policy may have to be established at stations with delineated short-term parking (such as Takoma and Minnesota Avenue).

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With the adoption of the Regional System by the WMATA Board on March 1, 1968, rapid rail transit development had reached the stage where a final and conclusive financial program had to be developed for submission to the federal and local governments. In order to develop the plan, an equitable and practical interconnecting feeder bus system and fare structure had to be included.

1969 - Net Income Analysis Study

The WMATA Board of Directors authorized the award of a contract in early 1968 to the joint venture frims of W.C. Gilman and Company, Inc. and Alan M. Voorhees and Associates, Inc. to conduct a study of traffic revenue and operating costs of the Regional Rapid Rail Plan and Program and including a description and discussion of coordinated bus and rail operations. This analysis covered the financial impact upon the four private bus companies and an analysis of three alternative fare systems.

1971 - Update Study of the Net Income Analysis

The objective of this study was to update the February, 1969 Traffic Revenue and Operating costs Study to reflect the impact of new population and employment estimates for the Washington metropolitan area. In addition, the study assumed common ownership and operation of the rail and bus portions of the transit system, a unified fare structure, and unit costs updated to current (1970) levels.

Based on the assumption of common ownership and operation of the rail and bus portions of the system, this 1971 study estimated 352 million annual riders for the completed rail and coordinated bus system in 1990. Of the more than one million daily transit trips forecast, 20 percent would use bus service exclusively while 81 percent would use bus service for at least part of the trip and the remaining 19 percent would use rail only.

1974 - Transit Technical Studies

On June 8, 1972, the WMATA Board approved the award of a contract to Wilbur Smith and Associates to conduct a series of Transit Technical Studies. The major objectives of the studies were to develop a plan to provide for the continuation of bus


service after the acquisition of the private bus companies, to assure efficient and economical operation of the area bus facilities before, during and after construction of the rapid rail system, and to establish a level of service compatible with the needs of the area.

Among the principal products of the two-year series of studies are an on-bus origin-destination survey made in the fall of 1972, a statement of Metrobus service objectives, a short-range 1974/75 integrated Metrobus service plan, analyses of numerous possible fare systems and fare schedules for Metrobus, a recommended garage construction and improvement program, and analyses of new ridership potentials through joint development of fringe parking lots and Metrobus express commuter services.

Numerous technical papers and Memorandum Reports which have been published for review and comment have enabled the staff to implement a number of improvements recommended during the conduct of the study. Other high priority reconmendations are being investigated for possible implementation.

1974 - Staff Plan and Program for Use of 620 New Buses

The WMATA Office of Planning, through coordination with other departments and the participating local jurisdictions, developed a plan and program recommending Metrobus service improvements that could be implemented in conjunction with the delivery schedule of 620 new buses. Essentially, the plan provided for three scheduled implementation phases:

Phase 1, which provided for the first 100 bus deliveries to be used to supplement the existing Metrobus fleet so as to provide improved operations and to reduce overcrowding conditions on, many of the linesi This phase was implemented on April 28, 1974;

Phase ll, which provided for the next 369 vehicles to be used to replace older equipment. This action was to provide greater operating efficiency and more attractive and dependable service; and,

Phase 111, which provided for the remaining 151 new buses to be used to expand and improve service throughout the region. This portion of the plan was inaugurated on September 1, 1974.

Also, in coordination with the WMATA Phase Ill program to improve service, the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments implemented bus service improvements in the Congress Heights area of Southeast Washington, D.C., as part of the Urban Corridor Demonstration Project.

1974 - Update Study of the Net Income_Analysis

The objective of this study was to provide information for the development of a revised financial plan for rail and bus operations,


and to develop information for recalculation of the local share of the net project cost of the transit system for allocation to each of the political subdivisions as required by the Capital Contributions Agreement of March 13, 1969.

A further purpose of this Net Income Analysis Study was to develop updated information for planning and designing of stations and routes based on the latest land use activity data. Also, the requirement for the development of a feeder bus ne twork adequate to serve the land use of the Washington metropolitan area in the year 1990 was considered. The study was to be completed by June 1, 1974, but the final report was delayed to include alternative fare systems analysis and various operating characteristics.

Based on the assumptions used in this study, an estimated 455,500,000 annual riders would be using the consolidated rail-bus system in 1990. Of the approximately 1.6 million daily transit trips forecast, 36 percent would use Metrobus exclusively while 73 percent would use bus service for at least part of the trip · and the remaining 27 percent would use rail only.

1975 - On-Board Bus Passenger Survey

On January 16, 1975, the WMATA Committee on Development of the Metrobus Deficit Allocation Formula unanimously recommended that annual operating deficits beginning with Fiscal Year 1975 be allocated using specific formulae which measured costs and revenue. WMATA staff conducted this system-wide bus passenger survey with technical and administrative assistance supplied by contract and with local jurisdictional assistance.

1975 - Environmental Impact Study of Contra-Flow Bus Lanes Along 14th and 15th Street Corridors

This study was concerned with the development of one-way street and contra-flow bus operation on 14th and 15th Streets in down town Washington. The contra-flow plan is part of a larger program to improve public transportation and encourage transit ridership in the National Capital Area.

Such a concept is consistent with the goal of the Environmental Protection Agency to improve transit operations and to increase system ridership, which in turn reduces vehicle miles traveled. Bus Lane provisions were one of the sets of strategies promulgated by the EPA on December 6, 1973 (38 FR 234) for the three states (District of Columbia, Maryland and Virginia) which make up the National Capital Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

1976 - Proposed Study Transit System Planning for Metrobus Interface with Metrorail Phases 11 and 111

The primary purpose of this study is to provide detailed bus route planning for the consolidated rail-bus operations that will


occur with the opening of the early stages of Metrorail.

The basic route layout will be designed by the WMATA staff in coordination with the local jurisdictions. Consultant (COG) assistance will be secured to prepare ridership, revenue and operating cost data. Ridership will be evaluated for a low and high level of feeder bus service for each of the three corridors affected by the introduction of Metrorail operations. Study findings will provide guidelines

as to the level of service that offers the most feasible and economical plan of operation. Also, the findings will supplement the staff study underway to detail an action plan for the interface of Metrorail and Metrobus service.

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This plan and program has been developed by the WMATA staff and is designed to maximize ridership and revenues through use of the combined rapid rail and surface Metrobus systems. Each Metrobus route has been carefully analyzed to determine the most attractive and feasible alternative route structure to interface with the Metrorail operations. In considering Metrobus route changes, special emphasis has been given to: (1) providing rail-bus connections that would offer convenient transfer privileges, (2) eliminating duplicate services where Metrorail would provide a speedier, more dependable and attractive service, (3) continuation of Metrobus routes where the rail system cannot adequately serve major destinations directly, and (4) the provision for more frequent service to areas now served, as well as extensions into certain communities where bus service is presently inadequate or nonexistent.


The primary objectives in the development of the bus routing network were to:

Link the residential areas with the rapid rail system

Link outlying shopping and business centers with the
surrounding residential area

Provide continuation of certain radial routes within D.C. to serve riders not having direct Metro service, including areas between rapid rail stations

Link high employment areas not served directly by the rapid rail system with the nearest stations

Improve crosstown and cross-county service


Service Classifications

For use in design, five basic classifications of bus routes were identified as follows:

• Feeder Route--a bus line that connects a tributary service

area with a rail station, designed for the primary purpose of serving passengers who will continue on via rail to their ultimate destination

Complementary Radial Service--a bus route designed to give passengers going to major destinations a direct ride without need of transfer. Such a route performs the same basic function as a rail route, but serves passengers and those areas that cannot be well served by rail, including areas between stations.

Crosstown Service--a bus route running circumferentially or generally perpendicular to the rail routes and radial bus services

Cross-County Service--a bus route connecting outlying areas within the Transit District for the purpose of providing a minimum level of service to transit captive riders not otherwise served by the basic metropolitan bus and rail system

• Owl Service--special skeletal service routes operated for

riders requiring bus transportation in the early morning

Service Guidelines

To assist in developing a logical and consistent bus-route design service, guidelines were developed. These criteria were followed as closely as the geographic constraints of the area allowed. The principal guidelines are listed below for each of the service classifications:

Feeder Routes

Feeder bus services should be provided when passengers from the bus route tributary area to the major destination can be given a faster and more convenient trip via a bus-rail combination than via a direct bus service.

Feeder bus routes should provide opportunities for
direct transfer to crosstown lines.

Feeder bus routes should be designed to relieve surface street congestion in the central business district and areas of major business activity.

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