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In other recent research, a dissimilarity in tissue type between
mother and fetus has been found in many women with rheumatoid arthritis who
improve during pregnancy.
This finding suggests that the nismatch induces an
immunologic reaction that suppresses the arthritis.
Lyme disease, which has both arthritis and skin disease among its major
manifestations, has become a national problem.
It is now the most common
insect-borne disease in the Nation, and its distribution is worldwide.
is giving high priority to both research and outreach programs for Lyme
The Institute has recently funded several new basic research grants
to increase understanding of how the infectious agent causes the disease, with
the hopes of improving diagnosis and treatment, and providing the foundation
for development of an effective vaccine.
NIAMS is also supporting a clinical
trial to determine if antibiotics can prevent Lyme disease from emerging in
people who have been bitten by the deer tick. Programs to better inform both
the public and health professionals about the dangers and prevention of Lyme
disease are under way.
A data base on educational materials was recently
completed; and in early March 1991, a workshop on Lyme disease will be held
with panels of experts to develop up-to-date vital information for physicians
on both the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease.
One of the most exciting breakthroughs this year was the identification of
a gene that causes a form of osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis,
a disease in which the cartilage that covers and cushions the joints breaks
NIAMS-supported investigators at two different grantee institutions,
working together, isolated and characterized a faulty gene for collagen II, the
main structural protein that strengthens cartilage.
Another exciting breakthrough in arthritis this year was the successful
induction, by transgenic transfer, into inbred rats of both the human gene
(HLA-B27) for spinal arthritis and the entire clinical spectrum of the group of
diseases (spondyloarthropathies) associated with spinal arthritis.
found in over 90 percent of patients with spinal arthritis, and in only 8
percent of the general population. These diseases associated with spinal
arthritis comprise the most common forms of arthritis in young men.
striking mimicry between the disease manifestations found in this animal model
and those found in humans opens avenues for research, including the testing of
Innovative therapies, that were unimaginable just a few years ago.
NIAMS epidemiological investigation of Native Americans in Alaska and Siberian
Eskimos--populations that have a high prevalence of spondylitis--promises to
shed light on the roles of genetic factors and environmental triggers, such as
Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) is an immune-mediated inflammatory
disease that afflicts numerous Americans, largely young women, especially black
women of child bearing age.
The disease affects the skin, joints, kidneys,
brain, and other organs. Recently, a new antibody was identified that is
clearly associated with psychiatric disorders due to lupus; this antibody will
make better diagnosis possible.
The Institute has set up a task force to study lupus in high-risk
With advice from the task force, NIAMS is developing instructive
kits that will help health care providers and community organizations conduct
health promotion programs targeted to young black women.
The Institute also
plans to sponsor an international workshop on systemic lupus erythematosus to
assess current knowledge and develop directions for future research,
Scleroderma is a serious disorder of connective tissue and the fine blood
Besides damaging the skin, muscles, and joints, the disease may also
affect internal organs, such as the kidneys, heart, and lungs, making it life
threatening in some people.
Women are affected three times more often than
The first symptom of scleroderma is usually Raynaud's phenomenon, wherein
blood vessels in the fingers narrow as the result of vasospasm, causing the
hands to become pale and cold.
There is also pathologic evidence of vascular
disease seen under the microscope. Accordingly, there is keen interest in exploring vascular abnormalities that may contribute to the etiology of the
NIAMS will issue a program announcement to stimulate more research on
causal mechanisms in scleroderma.
Over 100 different conditions are included among the heritable connective
tissue disorders, all of which stem from abnormalities of connective tissue,
the scaffolding that girds bone, skin, blood vessels, and the protective
coverings of internal organs.
Although the disorders are uncommon, they are
In April 1990, NIAMS cosponsored a multidisciplinary
scientific workshop on heritable connective tissue disorders.
participants made it clear that sophisticated research methods are enabling
scientists to unravel the complex biology of connective tissue and to uncover
the several defects that cause the disorders.
The Institute is encouraging
additional research in this area, and is exploring the possibility of a patient
registry to facilitate progress against these diseases.
Reducing the risk of sports injury is important to millions of Americans
who participate in exercise programs and athletics.
The Institute's mission
includes responsibility for research on exercise physiology and sports
Basic facts about how muscles function at the molecular level are
now being discovered.
Recent research has revealed a mechanism by which a
serious knee injury can destroy a joint.
In April 1991, the Institute, in
concert with the National Advisory Board, will hold a workshop on scholastic
sports Injuries to monitor the causes of athletic Injuries and identify ways to
We are continuing to make progress in research on the numerous skin
diseases that affect so many Americans.
In epidermolysis bullosa, a
devastating inherited blistering disease that affects the skin and mucous
membranes, researchers have found that the anchoring fibrils--which link the
outer layer of the skin to the inner layer--are conspicuously absent or
Recent investigations have also shown that type VII collagen, the
major structural protein of anchoring fibrils, can be broken down by both
collagenase and gelatinase.
Other research, utilizing patients assembled by
the National Epidermolysis Bullosa Registry, suggests that abnormal synthesis
of type VII collagen be responsible for the reduced number of anchoring
Alopecia areata is a disease of the hair follicle that results in patchy
or total loss of hair.
The psychological impact of the disease can be
debilitating, especially in young people.
In October 1990, NIAMS and the
National Alopecia Areata Foundation sponsored a 2-day research workshop on the
Experts in a wide variety of areas were convened for an open exchange
of information on clinical and histopathologic features of alopecia areata,
factors controlling hair growth, autoimmune aspects of the disease,
pharmacologic interventions, and animal models.
A new anatomic site that
controls hair growth has been discovered, and the ability to grow hair in a
test tube has been achieved.
These findings open new avenues of research that
will be pursued.
Psoriasis is a common chronic skin disease characterized by scaling and
redness produced by skin cells that divide rapidly.
For many years, psoriasis
was treated with preparations of tars and chemotherapeutic agents, such as methotrexate. Recently, clinical studies established the efficacy of
cyclosporine A, an immuno-suppressive drug in the treatment of psoriasis.
turn, this has led investigators to explore the role of immune-mediated factors
in causing the disease and to search for alternative drugs that cause fewer
side effects than does cyclosporine A.
The NIAMS is encouraging further
exploration of molecular, immunologic, and pharmacologic aspects of psoriasis.
Significant strides have been made in the Institute's Intramural Progran.
This past year two new laboratories were established to expand the scope of
research: the Laboratory of Skin Biology and the Laboratory of Structural
Fundamental studies of proteins responsible for maturation
of the epidermis, the skin's outer layer, are the focus of research in the
Laboratory of Skin Biology.
In the Laboratory of Structural Biology Research,
new sophisticated instrumentation is facilitating analysis of extremely small
structures, including membrane-associated components of the AIDS virus.
In the area of orthopaedic research, Intramural scientists have identified
the various phases through which an injured bone must pass to heal properly.
They have detected the presence of a specific natural protein, transforming
growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), between and around the ends of fractured bone;
and determined that TGF-beta not only initiates a repair response, but also
controls the rate of fracture healing.
Another ground-breaking accomplishment achieved by intramural scientists
was the development of an animal model for eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS),
a new epidemic inflammatory disease associated with ingestion of contaminated
Symptoms range from those of the flu, to severe rashes and
permanent nerve and muscle damage.
The new animal model provides the first
direct, experimental evidence linking EMS to contaminated batches of the
dietary supplement L-tryptophan.
Collaborations between NIAMS and the Department of Defense continue in
studies of skin manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- Infected
Establishment of a new Interagency agreement will significantly
Increase the rate of accrual of HIV-positive subject
into the studies to give
us an earlier estimate of the prevalence of skin disorders and accelerate the
pace of this research.
Mr. Chairman, the budget request for NIAMS for fiscal year 1992 is
I will be pleased to answer any questions you may have.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF DR. LAWRENCE D. SHULMAN
July 25, 1919, Boston, Massachusetts
Education: llarvard University, A.B., 1941; Yale University Graduate
Professional History: 1949-50, Intern, Medicine, The Johns Hopkins
Professional Organizations: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Physicians, American Federation for Clinical Research, American Rheumatism Association (President, 1974-75), American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, The Arthritis Foundation, Brazilian Society of Rheumatology, Carla Curzio Neapolitan Society, Lupus Foundation of America, New York Academy of Science, Pan American League Against Rheumatism (President, 1982-86), Society for clinical Trials, Sydenham Society, Society for Investigative Dermatology.
Honors. Awards: Senior Investigator Award, The Arthritis Foundation, 1957. 62. Pemberton Memorial Lecture, 1963. Fellow, American College of Physicians, 1967. Wallace R. Graham Memorial Lecture: Toronto, 1973. The lleberden Medal for Research in the Rheumatic Diseases, Heberden Society, London, 1975, Distinguished Service Award, The Arthritis Foundation, 1979. Honorary Member, Brazilian Society of Rheumatology, 1980. Honorary Member, Chilean Society of Rheumatology, 1981. Knowles Lecture: San Francisco, 1982. Honorary Member, Costa Rican Association of Rheumatology, 1984. Honorary Member, Australian Rheumatism Association, 1985. The Public llealth Service Superior Service Award, 1985. National Lupus Hall of Fame, 1986. Honorary Member, Swiss Society of Rheumatology, 1987. Elected Master, American Rheumatism Association, 1987.