Clean Fuels for Asia: Technical Options for Moving Toward Unleaded Gasoline and Low-sulfur Diesel, Volumes 23-377
IFC Results on the Ground No. 1. Spanish edition. The International Finance Corporation (IFC), whose primary mission is to encourage economic development in its member countries by supporting the private sector, measures its development effectiveness through an annual project review. This report, the first in a series that examines the IFC's development impact, presents five case studies of projects carried out during 1995-96. The projects involved were chosen for their geographic diversity and because they represent a number of sectors in which the IFC has traditionally done business--banks in Africa and Latin America; an agribusiness project in Madagascar; a textile operation in Indonesia; and an infrastructure project in Argentina. Each of these studies illustrates in detail the various aspects of project contributions of projects to development and some of the residual problems that will be the subject of future work.
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Page 39 - Nevertheless, the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible human influence on global climate.
Page 59 - Carbon Monoxide Carbon monoxide — an odorless, invisible gas created when fuels containing carbon are burned incompletely — poses a serious threat to human health. Participating in various chemical reactions in the atmosphere, it also contributes to smog formation and the buildup of methane. Exposure to carbon monoxide results primarily from motor vehicle emissions, though in some locales wood burning is also an important source. People with coronary...
Page 58 - Environment," noted the trend just described in the biomedical definition of lead toxicity. That NRC Committee recommended both that "... Efforts to abate lead hazards for children with elevated blood lead levels should be continued or expanded ..." and that "A serious effort should be made to reduce the baseline level of exposure to lead for the general population of the United States.
Page 64 - The University Of Akron Study on Air Pollution and Human Health Effects", Mostardi et al, Archives of Environmental Health, September/October 1981.
Page 59 - Because the affinity of hemoglobin in the blood is 200 times greater for carbon monoxide than for oxygen, carbon monoxide hinders oxygen transport from blood into tissues. Therefore, more blood must be pumped to deliver the same amount of oxygen. Numerous studies in humans and animals have demonstrated that those individuals with weak hearts are placed under additional strain by the presence of excess CO in the blood. In particular, clinical health studies have shown a decrease in time to onset of...
Page 59 - NO, have resulted in a wide ranging group of respiratory problems in school children cough, runny nose and sore throat are among the most common - as well as increased sensitivity to bronchocons tr ictors by asthmatics.
Page 38 - ... earth's radiant heat, our planet would be about 60 F (33 C) colder, and life as we know it would not be possible. Over the past century, however, human activities have increased atmospheric concentrations of naturally occurring greenhouse gases and added new and very powerful infrared absorbing gases to the mixture. Even more disturbing, in recent decades the atmosphere has begun to change through human activities at dramatically accelerated rates. According to a growing scientific consensus,...
Page 60 - O3-induced health effects, including decreased lung function (primarily in children active outdoors), increased respiratory symptoms (particularly in highly sensitive individuals), hospital admissions and emergency room visits for respiratory causes (among children and adults with pre-existing respiratory disease such as asthma), inflammation of the lung, and possible long-term damage to the lungs.
Page 60 - Photochemical oxidants (Ozone) The most widespread air pollution problem in areas with temperate climates is ozone, one of the photochemical oxidants which results from the reaction of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight. Motor vehicles are a major source of both of these precursor pollutants. Ozone causes eye irritation, cough and chest discomfort, headache, upper respiratory illness, increased asthma attacks and reduced pulmonary function.