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increased penetration of improved technologies in u.s. and world markets leading to earlier price reductions for efficient products;
generally increased availability of cost-effective technologies, for a range of applications, for preventing, controlling, and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and, wherever possible, for also recovering energy;
earlier penetration by existing efficient products sending the signal to manufacturers that there is
there is a market for such products, and eventually for even more advanced technologies; and finally,
improved information and accelerating demand for energy efficiency investments will encourage changes in utility regulations relating to potential efficiency investments.
We believe that these measures can have substantial effects. To address energy efficiency objectives, EPA has developed a fivepart strategy: (1) corporate and government purchasing; (2)
enhanced product markets; (3) regulatory and legal reforms; (4)
energy; and (5) expanded international markets.
EPA believes that
this strategy of efficiently using energy resources can costeffectively achieve reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases
below the levels which they would otherwise reach in future years,
while at the same time promote economic growth.
In the last two decades, U.S. energy consumption per unit of GNP has fallen by 30%, mostly as a result of the normal functioning
of the market.
"Green Lights" and related EPA programs targeted at
electricity consumption are part of an overall movement to improve the efficiency of energy use, including the Administration's National Energy Strategy, as well as utilities' integrated resource - 3
planning and demand-side management programs. We are coordinating closely with the Department of Energy on all of these efforts.
best way to explain how this strategy would work is to place it in
the context of programs that EPA has already developed, or
currently developing, in each of these strategic areas.
Corporate and Government Purchasing
Our flagship program in the area of corporate and government purchasing is "Green Lights," which was formally launched on
January 16, 1991.
Green Lights is a voluntary pollution prevention
partnership between EPA and corporations, States
or local governments. Green Lights partners commit to evaluating current lighting needs throughout their facilities and installing energyefficient lighting wherever it is profitable (as measured by the
prime rate plus 6 percent). EPA provides technical assistance through building survey software, support to a product testing
assistance sources, and public recognition.
EPA believes this program will be successful, since over 400
participants already signed up--nearly two billion square feet
committed--which is more than the office space in New York, Los
Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Dallas and Detroit combined.
While corporations have five years to complete their upgrades,
results from preliminary installations
installations look quite promising: reports received indicate that savings of 40-75% in lighting electricity consumption have been realized, exceeding some
previously published technical estimates.
indicate that investment in energy efficient lighting resulting
from utility including integral resource planning and demand-side
management, as well as Green Lights--could lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity production by millions of tons.
Why have these lighting upgrades not happened earlier, given
that the investments in efficient lighting products are
profitable? There are a variety of reasons. The facilities manager is responsible for lighting--and usually also charged with
making the elevators run and ensuring that the building temperature
money, and able to sort through the various products and their
claims, adequate and reliable information and the organizational support may not always be available to make the necessary
EPA's Green Lights program requires participants to establish
efficient lighting as a strategic corporate decision undertaken at
a high level within the corporation and it also provides information regarding the coordination of options available from
the existing range of lighting products as a system. The software, product testing and financing information support provided by EPA
helps the corporation make the most attractive upgrades.
public recognition afforded by the Green Lights program, as well as
the significant potential savings, provide incentives for corporate
leaders to commit to improving their energy efficiency.
At the - 5
State regulatory climates,
are starting to make major investments in energy efficiency measures in conjunction with their customers, increasing
shell improvements. As with lighting, efficient technologies exist today that could significantly reduce building energy needs. These technologies include variable speed drives for air handlers and
chillers, reflective painting on rooftops and window improvements.
interest from some of
partners, EPA is also exploring the possibility of a holistic program to stimulate corporate energy efficiency across the board-in other words, a green energy corporation program that would require participants to ensure that all equipment purchases are consistent with the principles of life-cycle profitability.
EPA's Green Lights--and similar "green" programs--demonstrate
that significant pollution prevention may be achieved by providing
information and technical advice to corporations and government
Enhanced Product Markets
second aspect of EPA's approach is to provide signals to
technologies that manufacturers can produce. EPA's premiere example of enhanced product markets is the "Golden Carrot" super
efficient refrigerator program.
The Golden Carrot program takes
the rebates utilities have agreed to provide to their customers who
buy efficient refrigerators after 1994 and aggregates them into a
single bid pool.
Manufacturers then bid on this pool of rebate
money. The bid pool is offered to the manufacturer that is able to
provide the greatest number
super-efficient refrigerators at the least cost by 1994 (or 1995).
Under present law, the Department of Energy (DOE) standard is
applied to all refrigerators as a minimum standard.
refrigerator model is required to be 25 percent more efficient than
the 1993 DOE appliance standard, and may be as much as 50 percent more efficient. The draft request for proposals (RFP) is currently being reviewed by the public and will be offered in June of this
The first super-efficient refrigerators will be shipped as
The rebates will be awarded directly to the
Opportunities for many other "Golden Carrot" programs exist.
In fact, an organization has recently been formed by EPA, utilities
and conservation groups--the Consortium for Energy Efficiency--to coordinate "Golden Carrot" and other utility demand-side management
The consortium strives for similar approaches among