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NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS
The National Bureau of Standards' was established by an act of Congress on March 3, 1901. The Bureau's overall goal is to strengthen and advance the Nation's science and technology and facilitate their effective application for public benefit. To this end, the Bureau conducts research and provides: (1) a basis for the Nation's physical measurement system, (2) scientific and technological services for industry and government, (3) a technical basis for equity in trade, and (4) technical services to promote public safety. The Bureau's technical work is performed by the National Measurement Laboratory, the National Engineering Laboratory, and the Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology.
THE NATIONAL MEASUREMENT LABORATORY provides the national system of physical and chemical and materials measurement; coordinates the system with measurement systems of other nations and furnishes essential services leading to accurate and uniform physical and chemical measurement throughout the Nation's scientific community, industry, and commerce; conducts materials research leading to improved methods of measurement, standards, and data on the properties of materials needed by industry, commerce, educational institutions, and Government; provides advisory and research services to other Government agencies; develops, produces, and distributes Standard Reference Materials; and provides calibration services. The Laboratory consists of the following centers:
Absolute Physical Quantities? Radiation Research Thermodynamics and
THE NATIONAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY provides technology and technical services to the public and private sectors to address national needs and to solve national problems; conducts research in engineering and applied science in support of these efforts; builds and maintains competence in the necessary disciplines required to carry out this research and technical service; develops engineering data and measurement capabilities; provides engineering measurement traceability services; develops test methods and proposes engineering standards and code changes; develops and proposes new engineering practices; and develops and improves mechanisms to transfer results of its research to the ultimate user. The Laboratory consists of the following centers:
Applied Mathematics – Electronics and Electrical Engineering Mechanical
THE INSTITUTE FOR COMPUTER SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY conducts research and provides scientific and technical services to aid Federal agencies in the selection, acquisition, application, and use of computer technology to improve effectiveness and economy in Government operations in accordance with Public Law 89-306 (40 U.S.C. 759), relevant Executive Orders, and other directives; carries out this mission by managing the Federal Information Processing Standards Program, developing Federal ADP standards guidelines, and managing Federal participation in ADP voluntary standardization activities; provides scientific and technological advisory services and assistance to Federal agencies; and provides the technical foundation for computer-related policies of the Federal Government. The Institute consists of the following centers:
Programming Science and Technology – Computer Systems Engineering.
Headquarters and Laboratories at Gaithersburg, MD, unless otherwise noted:
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, Juanita M. Kreps, Secretary
Luther H. Hodges, Jr., Under Secretary
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 79-600152
National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 561/1
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402
During the week of September 18-22, 1978, the 10th Materials Research Symposium was held at NBS, Gaithersburg, on the subject of "Characterization of High Temperature Vapors and Gases". The Symposium aim was to assess the state-of-the-art and future directions and characterization methods for high temperature vapors including, where appropriate, gases and, to a lesser extent, plasmas. Modern technology increasingly requires materials and processes to function at high temperatures--a condition where the vapor, gaseous or plasma phase becomes significant. For example, the future success of new energy technologies such as coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic generators, coal gasification, and nuclear fusion depends largely on materials performance in hot chemically reactive gaseous atmospheres. Characterization of such atmospheres, or components thereof, is a challenging problem requiring adaptation of existing and development of new experimental and theoretical techniques. An assessment of these techniques for application in modern science and technology had not been previously attempted. The Symposium addressed this question by assembling internationally recognized experts in the measurement science and technology of high temperature vapors, gases, flames, and, to a lesser extent, plasmas. Key foreign laboratories, including those of the USSR, France, England, Japan, West Germany, Canada and Mexico are represented in the formal proceedings. In the United States, academic, industrial and Government institutions each made a substantial contribution to the Symposium.
From this Symposium, a group of invited and pertinent contributed papers were selected for publication. Also, in order to prevent, as far as possible, serious omissions of important new or improved techniques a number of papers not delivered at the Symposium were solicited for inclusion in this publication. Each paper has been subjected to a critical review process. Further, those papers delivered verbally at the Symposium were discussed by the attendant body and the edited discussion included at the end of each paper. I believe that this interactive process between authors, reviewers, symposium attendees, and the editor has resulted in a valuable published account of the current status of "Characterization of High Temperature Vapors and Gases."
The discussion following most of the papers in these volumes was prepared as follows. During the Symposium both written (question and answer forms) and taped discussion material was generated. Editing of this material was designed mainly to eliminate remarks that were adequately covered in the main text. Additional constraints were imposed by the usual problems of incoherence and human error in taping. A light handed approach was used in the editing process in order to retain something of the conference atmosphere and the personalities involved. Those scientists involved in the discussion process may be located by reference to the list of Symposium Participants.