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DUSTON ELEVATED

IBRARY

THE NEW

INTERNATIONAL

YEAR BOOK

A COMPENDIUM OF THE WORLD'S

PROGRESS

FOR THE YEAR

1920

EDITOR

FRANK MOORE COLBY, M.A.

NEW YORK

DODD, MEAD AND COMPANY

1921

DOSTOEL

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PREFACE

Among the leading topics in the present volume—the nineteenth since the work began in 1898 and the fourteenth in the new series beginning in 1907-may be mentioned the following: The Presidential Election (article UNITED STATES), including summaries of the debates on the Treaty and other points at issue and the main features of the campaign; the League of Nations whose history during the first year of its existence is outlined under WAR OF THE NATIONS; and the long list of international quarrels, controversies, and partial settlements covered under WAR OF THE NATIONS and under the titles of the countries concerned, including the friction between France and England, the questions of German disarmament and reparations, the divergence of policy in respect to resumption of trade with Russia, Poland's war with the Soviet government, conflict among the Allies in respect to Poland, problems of Lithuania and the new Baltic states, Danzig, the Wrangel move. ment, Upper Silesia, the Adriatic Question and the Treaty of Rapallo, Armenia and the new Armenian Republic, the Turkish Treaty, the return of King Constantine to Greece, the Sinn Fein movement (article GREAT BRITAIN), spread of Bolshevism among Socialists (article SOCIALISM), difficulty between the United States and Japan, etc. Outside the political field the groups of articles dealing with labor subjects, agriculture, industries, and applied science are of especial importance, including AERONAUTICS; AGRICULTURE; CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL; topics in ENGINEERING; MEDICAL PROGRESS; MILITARY PROGRESS (with an account of the military reorganization act); NAVAL PROGRESS; SHIPPING and SHIPBUILDING; the articles on the respective industries and products, etc. The death roll, including the Empress Eugénie, Wundt, Howells, and many other famous names, is unusually long.

FRANK MOORE COLBY.

EDITOR

FRANK MOORE COLBY, M.A.

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES

MILO B. HILLEGAS, PH.D.,
FORMERLY COMMISSIONER: OF EDICATION OF
VERMONT.

AGRICULTURE, BOTANY, FOOD, FOR-
ESTRY, HORTICULTURE, IRRIGATION,
ETC.
EDWIN WEST ALLEN, PH.D.,
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
AND
ALFRED (HARLES TRUE, PH.D.,
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ;
E. H. SHINY (AGRICULTURAL EDICATION):
WALTER H. EVASS, PH.D. ( BOTANY AND
PLAST DISEASES); JOHN I. SCHULTE (CROP
PRODUCTION); CARL W. LARSON (DAIRY-
IXG); WALTER H. BEAL (FERTILIZERS AND
SOILS); HOWARD L. KNIGHT (FCOD AND
NUTRITIOX: AGRICULTURAL LEGISLATION):
EDWIN J. GLASSON ( HORTICULTURE AND
FORESTRY); RAY P. TEELE (RECLAMATION) ;
GEORGE M ROMMEL (STOCK RAISING) : AND
WILLIAM A. HOOKER (VETERISARY MED-
ICINE).

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ANTHROPOLOGY (WITH ETHNOLOGY)

ROBERT H. LOWIE, PH.D.,
AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY,
AND
(LARK WISSLER, PH.D.,
AMERICAN MUSEUM

OF

XATURAL HISTORY.

GEOLOGY; MINERALOGY

CHARLES P. BERKEY,
PROFESSOR OF GEOLOGY, COLUMBIA ('NIVERSITY.

GERMAN LITERATURE AMELIA VON ENDE.

ARCHAEOLOGY

OLIVER SAMUEL TONKS., PH.D., PROFESSOR OF ART, VASSAR COLLEGE.

ARCHITECTURE

(. MATLACK PRICE,

FORMERLY EDITOR OF THE Architectural Record. ASTRONOMY, METEOROLOGY

C. FITZHCGH TALMAN,
UNITED STATES WEATHER BUREAL'.

INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND ARBI

TRATION
CLINTON ROGERS WOODRUFF, LL.B.,
SECRETARY OF THE VATIONAL MUNICIPAL
LEAGUE AND MEMBER OF THE MOHONK (ONFER-
ENCE; FORMERLY PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF
PERSONAL REGISTRATION, PHILADELPHIA.

LITERATURE, ENGLISH AND AMERI

CAN
DAVID LAMBUTH, A.J.,
PROFESSOR OF EXGLISHI, DARTMOUTH COLI EGC.

FOR

THE

SEE

LITERATURE (CONTINENTAL): FRENCH LITERATURE; GERMAN LITERATURE; ETC.

CHEMISTRY; EXPOSITIONS; CELEBRA-
TIONS
MARCUS BENJAMIX, PH.D., Sc.D., LL.D.,
EDITOR

UNITED STATES NATIONAL
M'SEIM.
CIVIL ENGINEERING AND MANUFAC-

TURING SUBJECTS; AERONAUTICS;
ETC.
HERBERT TREADWELL W'ADE,
LATE CAPTAIN, ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT, I'. S.

ARMY.
DRAMA (AMERICAN AND ENGLISH)

OLIVER MARTIN SAYLER, M.A., DRAMATIC (RITIC, AUTHOR The Russian Theatre under the Rerolution.

MEDICAL SUBJECTS

EDWARD PREBLE, M.D.,
NEW YORK CITY.

MILITARY PROGRESS

('. DEWITT WILICOX. COLOXEL, I'. S. A.; PROFESSOR OF MODERN LAVGUAGES, l'. S. MILITARY ACADEMY.

OF

ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL

SCIENCE SUBJECTS
EDITORIAL STAFF.

MUSIC

ALFRED REVY, V.A..
EXTENSION LECTURER. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY,
AND FORMERLY PROFESSOR OF ILARMONY AND
COUNTERPOINT, INTERNATIONAL CONSERVATORY,

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