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harbor, about 58 acres, or two-thirds, had been completed, except at a few places in the northern part of the harbor, where the material was found too hard for the dredge used in the work, and except that a bulkhead was left in the extreme northeast portion of the harbor to protect an anchorage for small vessels. Many large bowlders had been re. moved from the bottom of the harbor. No work had been done in the area to be dredged to 10 feet at mean low water.

The amount expended during the last fiscal year was $13,825.43, and the results were the widening to 60 feet and deepening to 10 feet at mean low water 1,080 feet in length of the channel outside the harbor line in the southern part of the barbor; an increase of about 5.72 acres in that part of the barbor designed to be deepened to 13 feet at mean low water; the completion of the channel 15 feet deep and 750 feet wide around and to the eastward of the dolphin on Goat Island Spit (the area dredged at this place being 0.5 acres), and an increase of 224 feet in the width between the 15-foot curves at the southern entrance to the harbor. The area of the spit removed to a depth of 15 feet at mean Jow water in the latter work was about 2.75 acres, and at the end of the fiscal year this work was still in progress.

With the available remainder of the appropriation of July 5, 1884, the removal of the spit south of Goat Island to a depth of 15 feet at mean low water will be continued, the bowlders uncovered in recent dredging within the harbor will be removed, and the jetty on the southwest shore of Goat Island will be repaired, raised, and extended. The current contract is to be completed August 1, 1885. The current appropriation will be exhansted during the tiscal year ending June 30, 1886.

The work required to be done to complete the existing project is the remainder of the cutting away of the spit south of Goat Island to 15 feet depth, and northward to a line drawn from the Dolphin to clear the permanent dock at Fort Adams by 100 feet, the remainder of the excavation within the harbor of the anchorage area of 13 feet depth, and the excavation, also within the harbor, of the anchorage area of 10 feet depth. Also the completion of the system of jetties outside of Goat Islanıl to arrest the drift of littoral saud and gravel into the harbor entrance. July 1, 1884, amount available....

860 80 Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884

20,000 00

20,060 80

July 1, 1885, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1984,

$11, 217 13 July 1, 1885, outstanding liabilities.

2, 600 30

13, 825 43

July 1, 1885, amount available

6, 2:35 37 ( Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project

67, 000 00 Amount that can be profitably expended in tiscal yearending June 30,1887 50,000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river aud

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix C 8.)

9. Harbor of Refuge at Block Island, Rhode Island.- Before the con: struction of the present harbor of refuge Block Island had no barbor which afforded protection for decked vessels. The only ones used were open boats, which on the approach of storms were hauled up on the beach by oxen. The largest of these boats were of about 10 tons burden.

The original project and its subsequent moditications provided for a harbor of refuge on the eastern side of the islanıl, consisting of an in. ner harbor for the protection of small vessels and an exterior harbor for large ones. The former was to be about 250 to 300 feet in area, and inclosed, with the exception of an opening 60 feet wide in the clear on the seaside, by timber crib-work filled with stones, and resting on a riprap foundation. The exterior harbor was to be formed by a riprap breakwater, designed to intercept the waves from the eastward, and the beds of both harbors were to be cleared of bowiders.

The next project (1881) was to build a masonry wall on the east side of the inner harbor in lieu of the old crib. work on that side, which was in danger of breaking down in storms, and also to protect the cliff which lies to the eastward of the harbor, the material of which was carried by the current into the harbor, decreasing its depth.

The project for the work now in progress provides for filling the gap in the main breakwater under the provisions of the act of July 5, 1881, appropriating $15,000 for improving the break water. This gap, 200 feet in lengih and 1,400 feet from the shore, bad been left for the con. renience of vessels getting in and out of the barbor, but it was found to let in too much of the sea in stormy weather, interfering with the usefulness of the harbor.

The inner barbor and the main breakwater, built in prolongation of the eastern side of the inner harbor, and extending 1,900 feet from the shore, were constructed in the years 1870 to 1879, inclusive. The utility of the work at once became apparent. In storiny weather the inuer harbor especially was filled with fishermen and coasters, and it soon became necessary to increase its depth from 7 feet-to which it had been dredged in the first instance-to 9 feet at mean low water.

In 1883 a strong jetty was built out from the cliff to the eastward of the inner barbor, and a masonry wall was constructed on the inside of the crib work forming the eastern side of the inner barbor for the pur. poses before mentioned. The total expenditures up to June 30, 1884, including liabilities outstanding at that date, were $306,859.98.

The amount expended during the last fiscal year, including liabilities outstanding June 30, 1885, was $12,065.11, and the result was the filling of the whole length of the gap nearly up to mean low water, but not to the full width of the breakwater at tbat level. The width of the filling at top on June 30, 1885, was about 10 feet.

The Senate, December 8, 1884, passed a resolution calling for informa. tiou respecting the necessity of enlarging the inter harbor and its probable cost. The report of the Engineer officer in charge, in which he estimates the cost at $46,189, will be found in Appendix C 9.

With the remainder of the funds available it is proposed to carry the filling of the gap in the breakwater as high as they will admit. 'The appropriation of July 5, 1884, will be exhausted August 31, 1885.

The work which will be required to be done to complete the present project will be the filling of the gap to its full height of 6 feet above mean high water and its full width at top of 25 feet.

Attention is invited to the statement concerning the condition of the Tharf in the inner barbor of refuge at Block Island contained in the report of the Engineer officer in charge, Appendix C 9. July 1, 1884, amount available.....

$3, 140 02 Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884.

15,000 00

18, 110 02

July 1, 1825, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of

ontstanding liabilities July 1, 1884 July 1, 1837, outstanding liabilities..

[blocks in formation]

July 1, 1835, amount available...

6,074 91

Amonnt (estimated) reqnired for completion of existing project. $24,000 00 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal yearending June 30, 1837 24,000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix C 9.)

10. Little Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island and Connecticut.-Little Narragansett Bay lies on the north side of the eastern entrance from the ocean into Long Island Sound ; Pawcatuck River, upon which is situated the flourishing commercial and manufacturing town of Westerly, R. I., empties into the eastern side of the bay, and has been improved by the United States.

The navigable draught of water through the bay before improvement was about 45 feet at mean low water, and this clepth limited the navi. gation of Pawcatuck River.

The project of 1878 for the improvement of the bay provided for a chamel 200 feet wide and 74 feet deep at mean low water, extending from the entrance to the bay to the mouth of the Pawcatuck, and the removal of the bowlders which then obstructed navigation, and any others wbich the excavation of the channel might develop. Subse quently it was determined to clear away some large bowlders which interfered with steamboat navigation between this channel and Watch Hill, an important place of summer resort. The estimated cost of the improvement was $51,000.

The project was completed in the fiscal year 1883–84. The main channel as projected was excavated to its full width and depth, and the channel to Watch Hill was increased from 90 to 165 feet in widih by the removal of bowlders. Vessels drawing 10 feet of water can now reach the mouth of the Pawcatuck River at high water, but the full benefit of the improvement cannot be utilized until further deepening of that river to enable vessels of the same draught to reach the important manufacturing town of Westerly,

The remainder of the last appropriation for this work is reserved for comparative surveys of Sandy Point, at the entrance to the bay, which seems to be affected by the construction of the breakwater in Stoning. ton Harbor, and for rangemarks on Pawcatuck Point to guide through the new channel. The total cost of the completed improvement was $35,856.96. July 1, 1981, amount available

$143 04 July 1, 1855, amount available

143 04 (See Appendix 0 10.)

11. Harbor of Refuge at Stonington, Connecticut.–Stovington Harbor lies on the north side of the eastern entrance from the ocean into Long Island Sound.

Originally it was an open bay, uprotected from southerly storms and obstructed by a shoal, having at low water a depth of but 6 feet at the shoalest part. This shoal nearly filled the inner harbor, and left but a narrow channel on either side, of a depth insufficient to permit vessels of 12 feet draught to reach the upper wharves at low water.

A short breakwater was constructed in 1828–31, at a cost of $34,776.65, for the protection of the commerce of the town of Stonington. The orig. inal project of 1871 for the further improvement of this harbor, and its subsequent modification, under which the work is now carried on, embraced dredging in the upper harbor to secure an increased depth for the accommodation of the local shipping interests, and the construction of two breakwaters in the outer harbor, designed to inclose a large an. chorage or barbor of refuge in southerly storms for general commerce,

and also to protect the shipping in the upper harbor. One of these breakwaters--the western—was to be built out from Wamphassuck Point, the soutbwestern limit of the harbor, and extend out about 2,000 feet; and the other, the eastern, the construction of which is now in progress, was to extend froin the vicinity of Bartlett's Reef to the Middle Ground. The western breakwater was completed in 1880, at a cost of $103,190. The amount expended in dredging was about $15,000.

The amount expended upon the eastern breakwater up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1881, including liabilities outstanding at that date, was $79,943.66, and its length at that date was 1,6 15 feet.

The amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1885, including liabilities outstanding at that date, was $9,632.52, and the result was an extension of 205 feet on the western end of the eastern breakwater. Its total length at the close of the year was 1,850 feet.

No appropriation having been made at the last session of Congress, the work is suspended.

The position of the western end of the eastern breakwater has not been determined, but it will probably be found necessary, in oriler to afford all the protection desired, to extend the breakwater at least until it intersects a range from Stonington Light to the middle of Wicopessit Island. It may then be found desirable to carry it still further, possi. bly, to the range from Stonington Light to the eastern end of Fisher's Island. In the former case the additional length required will be about 720 feet, and in the latter 1,420 feet. The cost to complete cannot be stated with accuracy, on account of the uncertainty in regard to prices at which future coutracts may be let; but a fair estimate would probably be $53,000 for the shorter line, and $101,000 for the longer one. There will, therefore, be required to be provided by future appropriation at least the sum of $53,000, and by reason of the great danger to navi. gation which the western end of the breakwater now is, and will be until it is completed and a light-house and fog.signal are erected upon it, it is very desirable that the whole amount required to finish the breakwater be granted at the next session of Congress.

The completion of this work will afford a thoroughly protected anchorage for vessels drawing 18 feet of water, and a harbor of refuge for the immense coinmerce which daily passes between Long Island Sound and the eastward. July 1, 1881, amount available ..

$56 34 Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884.

10,000 00

10, 056 34

July 1, 1885, amonnt expended during fiscal year, exclusive of

ontstanding liabilities July 1, 1881.. July 1, 1885, outstanding liabilities.

$9, 622 15

10 17

9,632 32

July 1, 1885, amount available

424 02

Amout(estimated) required for coinpletion of existing project

53, 000 00 Amount that can be protitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30,1887 53,000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1861 and 1867. (See Appendix ( 11.)


It appearing, after preliminary examination by the local engineer, that the localities were worthy of improvement by the General Govern. ment, Lieutenant Colonel Elliot was charged with and completed the following, the results of which were transmitted to Congress and printed as Executive Documents of the Forty-eighth Congress, second session.

1. Harbor at Il yannis, Massachusetts, with a view of deepening the har. bor. Printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 96. (See also Appendix ( 12.)

2. Paucatuck River, Rhode Island. Printed as House Ex. Doc, Yo. 183. (See also Appendix C 13.)

3. Warren Rirer, Rhode Island, with a view to the remoral of obstructions from the channel. Printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 133. (See also Appendix C 14.)




Oflicer in charge, Lieut. Col. Walter McFarland, Corps of Engineers.

1. Connecticut River, Massachusetts and Connecticut. Above Hartford.From Holyoke, Mass., 34 miles above Hartford, down to Enfield Falls or Rapids, a distance of 18 miles, there is a fair channel 4 to 5 feet deep.

The Enfield Rapids, which cover a stretch of river about 5 miles in length, have a total fall of 32 feet. The berl of the river is rocky and uneren.

The Connecticut River Company years ago constructed a small canal around these rapids, which allows vessels 80 feet long and of 3 feet drauglit to pass through.

From the foot of Enfield Rapids to Hartford, a distance of 11 miles, the river has a broad sandy bed, with from 3 to 4 feet water upon it. Under a project approved in 1871, improvements have been made by the construction of wing-dains and dredging. One hundred thousand dollars have been appropriated for this part of the river, and there is now a balance on hand of $24,372.72.

The only work done during the past year was reinforcing with riprap the shore end of the Farmington wing-dam.

Iu 1880 a project was submitted for building a canal from the head of Eutield Rapids to Hartford. This canal was to be 130 feet wide and 10 feet deep on the levels, and was to have locks 200 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 8 feet depth of water over the miter-sills. The estimated cost of this project was $1,322,805, but it was not considered advisable to commence the construction with a less sun than $150,000, which has not yet been appropriated.

The funds on hand from the previons appropriations are sufficient for any temporary improvement that may be required during the fiscal year.

The benefit to be secured by a permanent improvement would be the reduction of the cost of transportation of bulky articles to a large man. ufacturing region now wholiy dependent upon railroads. July 1, 1881, amount available...

$26, 2-5 33 July 1, 1-85), amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding Tiabilities July 1, 1831.....

1,912 66 July 1, 1-87), amount available...

24,372 72 Belou Hartford.-The river distance from Hartford to Long Island Sound at Saybrook Point is about 50 miles, and this part of the river had formerly an available depth over the bars of about 5 feet. Dredg.

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