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ANNUAL REPORT

OF THE

CHIEF OF ENGINEERS,

UNITED STATES ARMY.

1 885.

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REPORT

OF

THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS,

UNITED STATES ARMY.

OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS,

UNITED STATES ARMY,

Washington, D. C., October 16, 1885. SIR: I have the honor to present for your information the following report upon the duties and operations of the Engineer Department for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1885:

OFFICERS OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS. The number of officers holding commissions in the Corps of Engineers, United States Army, at the end of the fiscal year was 107 on the active list, seven of whom were graduates of the Military Academy and commissioned second lieutenants, Corps of Engineers, to date June 15, 1984, and eight on the retired list; the latter, however, under section 1259 Revised Statutes, not being available for duty.

Since the last annual report the Corps has lost by resignation one of its officers, Capt. James Mercur, to take effect September 30, 1884, who entered the United States Military Academy at West Point as Professor in Civil and Military Engineering,

There have been added to the Corps by promotion of graduates of the Military Academy two second lieutenants whose commissions date from June 14, 1885, but they did not become available for duty until after the close of the fiscal year, and are therefore not included in the strength of the Corps.

On the 30th of June, 1887, the officers were distributed as follows:
Office Chief of Engineers, including the Chief
Ottice Chief of Engineers and Public Buildings and Grounds
Portifications and river and harbor works...
Fortifications, river and barbor works, and Board of Engineers.
Fortifications, river and harbor works, and light-house duty.
Forifications

, Board of Engineers, Board of Visitors, and Battalion of Engineers.
Fortifications, river and harbor works, Board of Visitors, and Mississippi River
Fortitications, river and harbor works, supervising engineer, and Board of Engi-
Fortitications, river and harbor works, and supervising engineer.
Fortifications, river and harbor works, and Board of Visitors
River and harbor works and light-house duty
River and harbor works and Missouri River Commission
Bilet and barbor works

, Mississippi River and Missouri River Commissions, and Board of Engineers, Board of Visitors, and Mississippi River Commission.

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River and harbor works

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Board of Engineers, Board of Visitors, and light house duty.

Supervising engineer...

Publications of geographical surveys west of the one hundredth meridian
Washington Aqueduct and Government of the District of Columbia

Washington Aqueduct.

Battalion of Engineers

Awaiting orders

Leave of absence

Detached, on duty with Lieutenant-General of the Army, generals commanding divisions and departments, Light House Establishment, Military Academy, Board of Commissioners of the District of Columbia, the Mississippi River and Missouri River Commissions, and construction of building for State, War, and Navy Departments, &c....

The officers detached were on duty as follows:

Col. Thomas L. Casey, in charge of the construction of the building for the State, War, and Navy Departments; of the Washington National Monument; of the improvement over the grave of Thomas Jefferson, at Monticello, Va.; of the erection of a monument at Washington's Headquarters at Newburgh, N. Y.; of the erection of building for the Army Medical Museum and Library and erection of a statue to the late President Garfield; member of Advisory Board to Committee on Ventilation and Acoustics of the House of Representatives; member of Light-House Board .

Maj. Jared A. Smith, engineer fifth and sixth light-house districts

Maj. David P. Heap, engineer secretary to Light-House Board...

Maj. William R. Livermore, on staff of Commanding General, Department of Texas...

Maj. William S. Stanton and Lient. William M. Black, on duty with Company F, Battalion of Engineers, and at Military Academy

Maj. Thomas H. Handbury, on staff of Commanding General, Division of the Missouri..

Capt. James F. Gregory, on staff of Lieutenant-General of the Army

Capt. Charles E. L. B. Davis, engineer tenth and eleventh light-house districts.. Capt John C. Mallery, engineer fourth light-house district..

Capt. Thomas Turtle, secretary and disbursing officer of The Mississippi River Commission.......

Capts. Frederick A. Mahan, Francis V. Greene, and Lieut. Curtis McD. Townsend, assistants to Engineer Commissioner, District of Columbia .

Capt. Joseph H. Willard, secretary and assistant to construction committee of The Mississippi River Commission

Lieut. Dan C. Kingman, on staff of Commanding General, Department of the Platte Lieuts. Eugene Griffin and Gustav J. Fiebeger, on duty at the Military Academy. Lieut. Walter L. Fisk, secretary and disbursing officer of The Missouri River Commission..

Lieut. Thomas L. Casey, on staff of Commanding General, Division of the Pacific and Department of California

Lieut. Theodore A. Bingham, on staff of Commanding General, Department of Arizona...

Lieut. John Millis, on duty under the immediate orders of Colonel Duane as his assistant in connection with experiments upon electric lighting

Lieut. John Biddle, on staff of Commanding General, Department of Dakota

SEA-COAST AND LAKE-FRONTIER DEFENSES.

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During the year operations have been restricted to those necessa for the preservation and repair of existing works.

As far as available funds would admit, the platforms were put in s viceable order of ten and fifteen-inch smooth-bore guns, of mortars, a of rifle guns bearing upon the channels of entrance to the various ha bors, as well as the necessary magazines pertaining thereto.

The subject of the defensive system of the country, so far as regar the ports at which fortifications or other defenses are most urgent required, having been referred by Congress to a Board of which t Secretary of War is president, it would be inexpedient at this time i

me to treat the subject further, especially as I had the honor in my last annual report to call attention to the defenseless state of the sea-coast, and to present estimates for fortifying certain important harbors.

The following estimates for the modification and repair of existing works, for torpedoes, &c., are respectfully submitted :

ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS REQUIRED FOR 1886–87.

$9,000 00 50,000 00

10, 000 00 500, 000 00

For acquisition of sites of two Martello towers at Key West, Fla., by

purchase or condemnation..
For sa-wall at Governor's Island, New York Harbor....

Fort Marion, Florida :
For restoration of the old fort to the condition substantially in wbich

it was left by the Spaniards..
For modification of existing sea-coast defenses...
For protection, preservation, and repair of fortifications for which

there may be no special appropriation available....:
For purchase of submarine mines, and necessary appliances to operate

them, for closing the channels leading to our principal sea-ports..
For needful casemates, cable galleries, &c., to render it possible to op-
erate submarine mines....
For continuing torpedo experiments and for practical instruction of
Engineer troops in the details of service

175, 000 00

300, 000 00

200, 000 00

30, 000 00

1, 274, 000 00

DEFENSES OF THE NORTHERN FRONTIER.

Fort Wayne, Michigan, in charge of Lieut. Col. 0. M. Poe, Corps of Engineers. This work is situated on the west bank of Detroit River, adjacent to the city of Detroit, and is intended to command the chandel of the river.

It is a nearly square bastioned work, commenced in 1841, having a scarp-wall of brick and concrete in place of the original timber scarp, a detached parapet of brick on the curtains and faces, and unfinished water-batteries on the up-stream and down-stream sides.

The construction of the fort in its present form was commenced in 1862, and completed in 1871; its repair was begun in 1882, and was completed in September, 1883.

Since the last Annual Report repairs on the fort have been confined to the renewal of the demilune magazine roof and of the parade revetment on the southwestern front.

These were done by contract and agreement with A. J. Dupuis, and were completed in November, 1884.

No estimate of funds required to complete the work is submitted. No appropriation was made for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1886. No appropriation asked for next fiscal year.

Fort Porter, Black Rock, near Buffalo, New York, in charge of Capt. Edward Maguire, Corps of Engineers.—This work, commenced in 1812, is situated on the Niagara River, within the limits of the city of Buffalo, and consists of a square stone tower or keep, in ruins, surrounded by a square barbette battery.

The keep was nearly destroyed by fire many years ago, and the entire work is, in its present condition, useless for offense or defense.

By joint resolution of Congress, approved July 11, 1870, published in General Orders 93, July 22, 1870, permission was granted to the city of Buffalo, through its park commissioners, “to improve and beautify the grounds known as Fort Porter, situated in said city, and belonging to

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