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14. Detroit River, Michigan.-Originally the channel at Lime Kilns Crossing, Detroit River, could be depended on for only 13 feet of water, the ordinary depth being much affected by winds.
As originally projected in 1874, the improvement at this point was to consist of a curved channel 300 feet wide, with a uniform depth of 20 feet, and the estimate was based upon this project.
It was subsequently (in 1883) determined to modify the project so as to secure a straight channel the least width of which should be 300 feet, with a somewhat greater width at each end, utilizing the work already done, and this constitutes the project as now under execution, which if the present rate of progress is maintained will be completed by the 30th June, 1886.
The quantity of material (solid rock) remaining to be removed to complete the present project is estimated at 19,232 cubic yards, pit meas. urement.
The obstruction is a ledge of solid rock, and is being removed by first breaking it up by drilling and blasting, and then dredging the debris. The result of this is to leave channel banks with ragged edges, which would prove destructive to any vessel striking them, and in order to diminish the danger of such results it is now recommended by the officer in charge that the width of the channel be increased to 400 feet, by taking away 50 feet more from each side. To do this will require the remoral of 23,998 cubic yards of solid rock, at an estimated cost of $167,986.
This recommendation is made with the greater contidence because the ultimate cost of the improvement will even then be but little more than half the original estimate. Amount of original estimate as modified
$1,206,500 Estimated cost of moditication proposed
1,374,486 Amount appropriated to date.....
$535, 000 Estimated amount required to complete the work as proposed.. 167, 986
702,986 Probable actual cost less than estimate.....
671, 500 Should this increase of width of channel be favorably considered, it is earnestly recommended that the estimated amount required to complete the work proposed be appropriated in one sum, so that it can all be put under contract at one time, and executed in the shortest practicable time.
An aggregate of 19,645,271 tons of shipping passed this point during the season of 1881. July 1, 1844, amount available.
$113 79 Received from sale of fuel.
39 39 Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1881..
200, 153 18 July 1, 185, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities Joly 1, 1884.
$37, 005 85 July 1, 1e85, outstanding liabilities.
50, 767 72 July 1, 1885, amount available
149, 385 46 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1837 168,000 00 Subinitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
barbor aets of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix L L 14.)
In reply to a resolution of the Senate of April 22, 1881, calling for detailed information concerning the Portage Lake and Lake Superior Ship
Canal, and the interest of the State of Michigan therein ; also as to the right, title, &c., of the Portage Lake and River Improvement Company (so called), with the view to securing said canals and improvements for the purpose of making the same a free water way for the use and benefit of navigation and commerce, Lieutenant-Colonel Poe, under instructions from this office, submitted a report thereon, wbich was trausmitted to Congress at its last session, and printed as Senate Ex. Doc. No. 15, Forty eighth Congress, second session. (See also Appendix L L 15.)
Lieutenant-Colonel Poe reports that the price asked for the two canals is $350,000, and if the ownership of this important water-way can be vested in the Government free from all incumbrance, thus reudering their navigation free to commerce, there can be no question but that the price is reasonable and the purchase advisable.
The opening of these canals would shorten the route for all vessels from Sant Saint Mary to Duluth and avoid the dangerous passage around Keweenaw Point, which is extremely hazardous, especially during the stormy months of spring and fall.
The already great and rapidly increasing commerce of Lake Superior would seem to commend this purchase to the favorable consideration of Congress.
(See Appendix L L 15.)
EXAMINATIONS AND SURVEYS FOR IMPROVEMENT TO COMPLY WITH
REQUIREMENTS OF TIIE RIVER AND HARBOR ACT OP JULY 5, 1884.
The following localities were examined by the local engineer in charge and not recommended for improvement:
1. Mackinac Ilarbor, Michigan.—(See Appendix L L 16.) 2. Pine River, Saint Clair County, Michigan.—(See Appendix L L 17.)
3. For harbor of refuge at or near Cross Village, Michigan.—(See Appendix L L 18.)
Reports on the above examinations were transmitted to Congress and printed in House Ex. Doc. No. 71, Forty-eifhth Congress, second session.
4. Report whether the old locks at the Saint Mary's Falls Canal can be used for a dry-dock.-(See Appendix L L 19.)
And it appearing, after preliminary examination by the local engi: neer, that the localities were worthy of improvement by the General Government, Lieutenant-Colonel Poe was charged with and completed the following:
1. Clinton Rirer, Michigan.-Report transmitted to Congress and printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 210, Forty-eighth Congress, second session. (See Appendix L L 20.)
2. Saint Clair River, Michigan, to ascertain whether the erosion of the right bank is injuring narication of the river and Saint Clair Flats Canal.-(See Appendix L L 21.)
IMPROVEMENT OF HARBORS ON LAKE ERIE WEST OF BUFFALO, WITH
TIIE EXCEPTION OF THE HARBOR AT ERIE-IMPROVEMENT OF SANDUSKY RIVER.
Officer in charge, Maj. L. Cooper Overman, Corps of Engineers.
1. Monroe Harbor, Michigan.—The original project for the improve. ment of this harbor was adopted in 1835, when Monroe was a town of considerable importance, and when the navigable waters of the river Raisin were separated from the waters of Lake Erie by extensive shoals.
It provided for cutting a canal between the river and the lake, 4,000 feet long and 100 feet wide, through the peninsula called “ River Raisin Point," and protecting the entrance into the lake by parallel piers running out to a depth of 10 feet, the object being to afford a channel of entrance of navigable width with a depth of 10 feet. Work was commenced in 1835, and has been continued from time to time since that date.
At the close of the present fiscal year there was a good channel, with a least depth of 10 feet, up to a point below Monroe, which is deemed sufficiert for the present commerce of the port. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1887, no work of any kind was done for want of funds.
The total amount appropriated for this harbor has been $213,515.27, which has resulted in securing a navigable channel with a least depth of 10 feet up to a point just below the docks at Monroe, where rock bottom occurs. If this harbor is to be kept up, there is need of extensive repairs to piers and revetment, in order to prevent their ultimate de. •struction or more expensive renewals in later years. These are estimated to cost $20,000.
The present commerce of Monroe is not sufficient, in the opinion of the officer in charge, to justify such a large expenditure. Hence, he considered a small annual appropriation for repairs sufficient until an increase of commerce demands the extensive renewals. Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project
$20,000 Amount that can be protitably expended in tiscal year ending June 30,1887 4,000 Submitted in conpliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (Sce Appendix M M 1.)
2. Toledo Harbor, Ohio.-When operations were commenced at this harbor, in 1864, the channel through the bay was narrow and intricate, presenting a depth of only 11 feet. The original project provided for cutting a channel 200 feet wide and 12 feet deep through Maumee Bay, and this was amended from time to time until the present project provides for a channel 200 feet wide at bottom and 16 feet deep at low water between the city of Toledo and deep water in Lake Erie. In 1868 there was a channel 100 feet wide and 12 feet deep; in 1875, the depth had been increased to 14 feet, and at the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1885, there was a good channel 200 feet wide at bottom on the ranges and from 260 to 350 feet wide at the angles, with a depth of from 15 to 17 feet at low water between Toledo and deep water in the lake.
The total amount appropriated for this harbor since 1866 to close of fiscal year ending June 30, 1885, has been $704,700, of wbich sum 8704,446.19 has been expended. This expenditure has resulted in obtaining a good 16-foot channel where before there was a narrow, intricate channel with but 11 feet for vessels.
During the fiscal year the sum of $27,389.28 has been expended in maintaining the channel and in deepening same at various places by the removal of 155,085 cubic yards of mud, clay, sand, &c.
The estimated cost of the present project was $570,000, of which amount there has been appropriated $510,000. The balance of $60,000 yet required will not complete the project as originally estimated, owing to the time consumed in doing the work, for want of adequate appropriation, the contingent expenses and the annual removal of the deposits of each winter and spring, repeated for twelve years, having absorbed at least $100,000 of the original estimate. It will therefore require at least $160,000 to complete the improvement of the natural channel, the whole of which can be expended during the year ending June 30, 1887, in deepening and widening the channel between Toledo and 16 feet of water in Lake Erie, after which an annual expenditure of about $20,000 will be needed to maintain the dredged channel through the open bay.
The act of July 5, 1884, appropriated $25,000 to commence the work of making a straight channel for the Maumee River from its mouth to Lake Erie, in accordance with the second plan recommended by Major Wilson in report dated November 19, 1881. This plan is estimated to cost $2,363,923, which amount includes item for contingent expenses amounting to $214,902.
A work of such magnitude should not be commenced unless with a sum bearing due proportion to the ultimate cost, else the annual loss would largely increase the estimated cost, and in the present case the conditions are such that the amount of work practicable with $25,000 might be obliterated by the elements before another appropriation becomes available.*
The sum of $300,000 is as small a sum as should be on hand to begin. this work in a proper manner in accordance with the specified plan.
The $20,000 appropriated by act of July 5, 1884, was expended during the year in dredging the natural channel through Maumee Bay, in ac. cordance with existing project. This amount was barely sufficient to remove the deposits of the previous winter and spring from said channel, so that the work accomplished during the past fiscal year did not make much progress towards the completion of the project, except a slight deepening of channel in some places. July 1, 1884, amount available.....
$7,643 09 Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884.
27,643 09 July 1, 1855, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884....
27,389 28 July 1, 1885, amount available......
253 $1 [ Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.. 160, 000 00 Amount that can be protitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30,1837 160,000 (0 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1306 and 1867.
Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884.
$25,000 00 July 1, 185, amount available...
23,000.00 (Amount (estimatel) required for completion of existing project. .2, 338, 923 00 Amout that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30,1887 500,000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1000 and 1867. (See Appendix M M 2.)
3. Port Clinton IIarbor, Ohio.-The first survey of the harbor under the General Government was made in 1867, but no action was taken upon it. In 1870 a new survey was made, which showed the channel at the entrance to be narrow and intricate, with depth of only 5 feet.
The original project provided for cutting a channel 8 feet deep through the outer bar, and constructing piers from the shore out to the necessary depth. Efforts were made, without success, during the years 1872, 1873, and
Since the close of the fiscal year instructions have been given for the expenditure of this appropriation.
1874 to obtain a channel by dredging only, but the required depth could Dot be maintained.
The present project, adopted in 1875, provides for a pile revetment, running from the porth shore of the Portage River, opposite the town, 967 feet out into the lake in a direction north 57° east; then inclining towards the north, a pile pier, about 1,500 feet long, extends to the depth of 10 feet in the lake; parallel to this, and 200 feet from it, an east pier, 2,600 feet long, to run out from the south shore of the river. It is expected that a full depth of 9 feet can be maintained by confining the waters of the Portage River between these piers.
The total amount appropriated for this harbor to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1885, has been $46,000, of which sum $45,982.30 bas been expended. This expenditure has resulted in obtaining a depth of 9 feet from the lake to the town, where there was originally but 5 feet.
During the fiscal year no work of any kind has been done for want of funds.
The original estimate for the work was $122,000, a revised estimate $90,000, of which $16,000 has been appropriated, but the engineer in charge questions the advisability at present of expending the remaining $14,000, as the commerce, present or prospective, is not such as to justify such an expenditure.
If it is deemed best to continue the improvement as projected the sum of $20,000 can be expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1887, extending the piers and repairing same. July 1, 1881, amount available
$29 38 July 1, 1835, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884.....
11 68 July 1, 1885, amount available
17 70 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project..... 44,000 00 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30,1887 20,000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
barbor acts of 1006 and 1867. (See Appendix M M 3.)
4. Sandusky City Harbor, Ohio.—The original survey of this harbor was in 1826, but no appropriation was made until 1844. In the latter year the depth in the channel through the outer bar was 10 feet, and the greatest depth in the bay was about 12 feet. There was an exten. sive breach in the peninsula which protects the harbor on the west and north west; the original project provided for closing this breach by crib. work and deepening the channel through the outer bar to 12 feet.
The appropriations of 1844 and 1852 were applied to closing the breach in the peninsula, but the failure of further appropriations left the work unfinished, and in 1864, when operations were resumed, the old work was found to have been destroyed.
In 1864 a project was proposed for opening a channel 400 feet wide and 12 feet deep through the outer bar. This has been amended from time to time, and at present the project calls for a channel through the outer bar and the bay up to within 50 feet of the line of docks and then parallel to the docks, the portion through the bar and bay to be 200 feet wide, and that parallel to the docks 100 feet wide, the whole to be 15 feet deep. In 1869 the channel through the outer bar was 240 feet wide and 12 feet deep; in 1872 the depth was increased to 13 feet, and work was commenced upon the channel within the bay; in 1875 there was a channel 100 feet wide through the outer bar, and one 150 feet