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Before the work of improvement commenced, the ruling depth between Moorhead and the head of Goose Rapids, at low water, was 11 feet, and below Grand Forks 2 feet, and the channel between Moorheail and Breckenridge was much obstructed by snags and leaning trees. Since the work of iinprovement commenced a least depth of 3 feet, at low water, bas been secured for 30 miles below Moorhead, and of 4 feet for 32 miles below Grand Forks. In addition, snags and other obstructions have been removed from the river for 76 miles above Moorhead, to the improvement of navigation at high and medium stages of water, and snags have been removed also for 152 miles of the stream below Moosbead. Amount expended to close of year ending June 30, 1885, $117,423.15. The sum of $15,000, asked for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1887, is to be expended in continuing dredging operations, and removal of obstructions generally, below Moorhead and Fargo, and in dredging and removal of snags between those points and Breckenridge. July 1, 1884, amount available .......
2, 137 39 Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884.
12, 137 39
July 1, 1885, anount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884....
6, 565 54
July 1, 1885, amount available..
Amount (estimated) required for completion of improvement per revised estimate, not including lock and dam at Goose Rapids...
56, 310 18 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1887 45,009 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix A A 8.) 9. Constructing lock and dam at Goose Rapids, Red River of the North, Minnesota and Dakota.—The original estimate for this proposed work, 1877, was $219,287.99. Object, to overcome the fall at the worst obstructions near the head of the rapids, so as to connect with the dredg. ing improvements of the river above and below the rapids.
The acts March 3, 1881, and August 2, 1882, appropriated a total of $50,000 for the work. Tbis sum being small in proportion to the prob. able cost of the work, and more detailed information in regard to the entire extent of rapids than was at hand being needed, a survey was made during the season of 1883 in order that a close estimate of the cost of improvement might be available for consideration. The report of the survey which was transmitted to the House of Representatives March 12, 1884, presented three plans, with estimates of cost, as fol
$131, 123 274, 123
1. Locks and dains at Buffalo Neck and Isabella Island, and necessary
dams, training-walls, &c.. The report suggested the advisability of substituting an improvement by dredging for that by locks and dams, and the consideration of the advisability of rendering the appropriations already made available for the work of dredging. Shoult, however, the improvement by a lock and dam with dreifged approaches (cost $274,129) ve decided upou, the um of $100,000 in addition to the sums already appropriated can be profitably expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1887, in pre
liminaries, excavation, foundations, &c. Amount expended (in examinations) to June 30, 1885, is $3,052.35, which also is the total amount expiended. There are no operations to report for the year end. ing June 30, 1885. July 1, 1884, amount available
$46, 947 65 July 1, 1885, amount available..
46, 947 65 Amount (estimated) required for completion of projected lock and dam, &c., if ordered to be built...
224, 128 49 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix A A 9.)
10. Reservoirs at headwaters of Mississippi Rirer.—The object of the reservoirs is to collect surplus water, principally from the precipitation of winter, spring, and early summer to be systematically released, so as to benefit navigation during the season of drought upon the reaches of the several streams below the dams aud also upon that of the Mississippi below Saint Paul. This project may be said to have been adopted in 1880, following an appropriation by Congress for the work by act of June 14, 1880.
During the fiscal year the following named dams were fully completed, viz: Dam at the outlet of Lake Winnibigoshish ; dam at the outlet of Leech Lake; dam at the falls of Pokegama, and work continued upon a fourth on Pine River at the outlet of Cross Lake, Minnesota. This latter dam is more than half completed. The three com. pleted dams had impounded by the close of the fiscal year over and above what was allowed to flow during the fall, winter, and spring months and during June, 24,000,000,000 cubic feet of water, a quantity which equaled expectation for that time. During May the river abore Aitken was maintained at a stage sufficient for steamers, and during June the discharge was largely increased.
An examination of the river towards the latter part of June, however, showing a plentiful supply of water at and below Aitken, it was deemed best to reduce the discharge from the reservoirs, providing, however, for the needs of navigation on the river below them, and to defer further test until later in the summer. The system as originally reported upon, provided for 41 reservoir dams in Minnesota and Wisconsin at an estiinated first cost (omitting that of land, &c., damages) of $1,809,083.
No benefit of consequence can accrue to the navigation of the Mississippi River below Lake Pepin, unless the entire system of dams be built. The reservoirs have been ordered by Congress in the interest of river navigation, and they should not be diverted from that purpose. Amount expended to June 30, 1885, $503,776.23. The sum of $140,000 estimated for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1887, to be expended in extending the system at the headwaters of the Mississippi; and the sum of $10,000 is also estimated, in addition to that for continuing construction, as necessary for the expense of operating and guarding the completed dams for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1887. July 1, 1884, amount available.....
$106, 612 62 Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884.
60, 000 00
166, 632 62
July 1, 1885, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive
of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884.. July 1, 1885, outstanding liabilities
$76, 717 72
8, 691 13
85, 408 85
July 1, 1885, amount available...
$1, 224, 083 00
(Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.. Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1887......
To be expended in construction
To be expended in operating dams..
Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and harbor acts of 1866 and 1867.
(See Appendix A A 10.)
11. Surveys for reservoirs at the sources of the Mississippi, Saint Croix, Chippewa, and Wisconsin rivers.-The officer in charge reports that if the reservoir work now begun in Minnesota at the headwaters of the Mississippi river is to extend to the Saint Croix, Chippewa, and Wisconsin rivers, it will be necessary, in order to meet questions constantly arising, as well as to be enabled to make close estimates of cost of dams, &c., to continue hydrological observations, borings, and contouring of proposed dam-sites. The funds available for these surveys in 1878 and 1879 were not sufficient for a thorough examination of all the region with reference to flowage, so that in estimating areas of land liable to overflow from creation of reservoirs, large margins were necessarily taken on the side of safety. He estimates the cost of examinations for one year at $50,000. There having been no appropriation for such work during the past fiscal year, nothing was done under this head. (See Appendix A A 11.)
MPROVEMENT OF TENNESSEE AND CUMBERLAND RIVERS, AND OF CERTAIN RIVERS IN EASTERN TENNESSEE AND KENTUCKY.
Officer in charge, Maj. W. R. King, Corps of Engineers, with Lieut. Jas. G. Warren, Corps of Engineers, under his immediate orders.
1. Tennessee River.-a. Above Chattanooga.-Examinations of this river Tere made in 1830 and 1872 from Chattanooga to Knoxville, 189 miles. The present project for the improvement of this section is based upon the latter examination. The obstructious, some twenty-nine in number, were found to consist of gravel-bars, rock-reefs, rapids, and shoals, with about 15 inches of water over them. The project of improvement templates the removal of these obstructions by blasting a channel through the reefs, and building stone wing and retaining dams to scour at the gravel, or deepen the channel by reducing its width, so as to Secure a depth of 3 feet at low water.
The total amount expended up to June 30, 1885, is $218,350.36, which has resulted in the removal of many obstructions and greatly improved
The improvements are practically permanent when completed. Work as done during the past year at William's Island Shoals, Lyon's Soals, and other minor obstructions near Knoxville, giving an inCreased depth of water and rendering navigation at these points safer. The appropriation herein estimated for can be profitably expended he completion of the existing project, and in repairing and extendsome of the dams already built.
1, 1884, amount available ....
appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884
1,1955, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of tstanding liabilities July 1, 1884..
1, 155, outstanding liabilities..
1, 1885, amount available
Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project. $21,500 00 Amount that can be protitably expended in fiscal yearending June 30, 1887 30,000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
barbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix B B1)
b. Belou Chattanooga.-The original condition of this section of the river was as follows: From Chattanooga to Brown's Ferry, 162 miles, about 3 feet of water for nine months in the year; thence to Florence, 39 miles (including the Muscle Shoals obstructions), not navigable; from Florence to the mouth of the river, 255 miles, 10 to 20 inches over numerous shoals, with navigable pools between them.
The present project, adopted in 1872 and modified in 1877, consists in building a canal, 70 to 120 feet wide and 6 feet deep, around the Big Muscle Shoals, with nine locks, 300 feet between gates and 60 feet wide, to replace the old canal built by the State of Alabama nearly fifty years ago; and in extending the improvement in a similar manner around Elk River Shoals, where two locks and 14 miles of canal are required. Little Muscle Shoals and minor obstructions between Chattanooga and Paducah to be improved by channel excavations, wing-dams, &c.
The total amount expended to June 30, 1885, was $2,574,993.72, and has resulted in the improvement of the river as follows: Several of the more serious obstructions between Chattanooga and Decatur have been removed and others greatly improved. On the Elk River Shoals di. vision the channel excavation is completed, one of the locks is ready for the gates, the foundation pit for the other is excavated, and all of the stone for it has been quarried, cut, and transported to the lock-site; the excavation of the canal trunk is well under way. On the Muscle Shoals division the nine locks are completed, ready for the gates; twelve iron lock gates have been constructe, eight of which are in position, though not yet anchored to the masonry; the masonry of the Shoal Creek Aqueduct, 900 feet long, is completed, and the beavy iron beams for its trunk are on hand; permanent bridges have been built across four creeks; the canal trunk is well advanced towards completion.
The amount available and the appropriation herein estimated for can be profitably expended in continuing operations at Muscle Shoals and in removing minor obstructions in other parts of the river between Chattanooga and Paducah. Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884...
$350,000 (0 July 1, 1885, amount expended (turiug fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1864
$215, 372 67 July 1, 18-5, outstanding liabilities.
14, 121 05
229, 493 72 July 1, 1885, amount available..
120,506 23 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.... 1, 437, 500 00 Amount that can be protitably expended in tiscal year ending June 30, 1887
550, 000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix B B 1.)
2. Cumberland River, Tennessee and Kentucky.—The States of Ten. nessee and Kentucky made appropriations for the survey and improve. ment of the Cumberland in 1830, and in 1870, 1875, 1879, 1880, 1881, and 1883 surveys and examinations were authorized by Congress; the present plans of improvement are based upon these.
a. Below Nashville, (192 miles).—The project for the improvement of this section consists in blasting a channel through rock-reefs, and removing bowlders, gravel-bars, snags, and overhanging trees, and in building riprap dams where necessary, to secure additional depth and prolong the season for navigation.
During the year work was done at Race Track, Ingram, and Little River shoals, at Sycamore Bar, Medlock's Bar, Seven Mile Ferry, Pal. myra Island, Wells Island and Cumberland Island near the mouth of the river, also snag-boat work between Nashville and the mouth of the river, The entire amount expended on this section to June 30, 1885, was $210,911.23, and has resulted in lengthening the season of safe navigation for steamboats drawing from 3 to 4 feet, and in enabling lightdranght boats to run during the low-water season.
The appropriation herein estimated for can be profitably expended in continuing the improvement of the shoals below Naslıville, includ ing the bar at the mouth of the river, in accordance with the present plan. July 1, 1824, amount available ....
$61 14 Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884
7,561 14 July 1, 18-55, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884
$5, 620 79 July 1, 1825, outstanding liabilities..
5,972 37 July 1, 1855, amount available
1,588 77 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.. 105, 500 00 Amount that can be protitably expended in fiscal yearending June 30, 1887 50,000 00 submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix B B 2.)
b. Abore Nashville (including Smith's Shoals) 335 miles. During the fiscal year work has been done at Upper Nashville Island, and at Waitsboro' Shoals, also, snag-boat operations between Lower Holliman's Island and Nashville, 144 miles. The original project consisted in blasting a channel through rock-reefs, removing gravel-bars, bowlders, snags, &c., and in building riprap dams to contract the water-way where nec. essary. This plan has been modified by a recent survey, and the pres. ent project contemplates a more radical and permanent improvement by a combination of the above with locks and dams.
The total amount expended to June 30, 1885, is $297,939.65, and has resulted in securing a cleared channel, having an increased depth of from 6 to 8 inches at the principal obstructions, and therefore a lengthened season of navigation.
The appropriation now available and that herein estimated for can be profitably expended in operations above Nashville, in building locks and dams, and in such open channel work as will be needed whether the lock and dam system is carried out or not, the work to be carried on in a tentative manner, so as to ascertain just how far wing and training dams can be used in place of the lock system. Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884.
$50, 000 00 Jaly 1, 1885, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884
$20, 274 01 July 1, 1885, outstanding liabilities
20,939 65 July 1, 1935, amount available....
29, 060 35