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of a foot per mile to 4 feet per mile. At another point a bad bar interfered with navigation, at low water, and in the sharp bend in front of the town of Pine Bluff the river was eroding the banks with a rapidity that threatened the town.

The original project proposed: 1. To protect the river bank in front of the town from further erosion; 2. To rectify the course of the river in the bend above town, in order to remove a bar now existing there, and also, by diminishing the curvature of the bend, to lessen the tendency to excessive scour in front of Pine Bluff, and 3. To prevent the formation of a cut-off then threatened across the peninsula opposite Pine Bluff. The whole improvement to extend over 13 miles of river. Up to June 30, 1884, $67,287.14 had been expended with the above objects in view; 3,900 feet of the town front, beginning at Brump's Bayou, was revetted during 1881; 3,700 feet of Yell's Bend was revetted the same year to prevent the cut-off, and a wire-curtain dike 1,110 feet long was put in to affect the bar. In 1882 3,000 feet more of Yell's Bend was revetted, and in 1883 the old works were repaired; 3,000 feet of bank in Yell's Bend was regraded, and 1,000 feet of high-water protec tion put in place. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1884, little was done except to care for plant. July 1, 1884, there remained of all this work only the wire-curtain dike. This result was predicted by the various engineers in charge, inasmuch as the works bad to be left in an unfinished state, owing to failure of funds. The works in Yell's Bend had existed, however, long enough to delay the advance of the river until changes above rendered the danger less imminent. The wire-curtain dike did good service, and the bar was much improved The town, however, was left at the mercy of the river. During the high water of the spring of 1884, the front was eroded in places 120 feet and upward, and it was apparent that if something could not be done the entire business portion of the town would have to move back or be swept away.

By act of July 5, 1884, $55,500 was appropriated for this work, and of this $49,139.73 have been expended in such a manner as to protect the entire front, except the last two blocks. The works have endured two extraordinary rises and done their work well, with no signs of weakness.

These results were secured by plans differing radically from the orig inal project. A dike was erected on a bar which was forming down stream. This dike was well provided with foot-mats and so deflected the river that it eroded over 275 feet of the opposite bank, and cut ou a deep channel. A second dike was thrown in nearer the town, and this checking the velocity, caused the river to lose its load, which, being dropped upon the layer of quicksand, kept it from being eroded, and hence no caving occurred. Dikes were made very strong and built for the peculiar action of alluvial streams. By using boxes filled with sand instead of stone the dike was built at a reduced cost of $49,000, and the balance remaining is held for contingencies.

Several very important facts have been established in this work, one dike being located where it meets attacks hitherto supposed, under ex isting circumstances, that a dike could not be made to resist. The results have been most unexpected. The river was made to do the worl of a much larger appropriation in one rise by the judicious location o the upper dike.

To afford protection to the entire front, i. e., the other two blocks o the town, a further appropriation of $8,000 will be required.

July 1, 1881, amount available
Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1881.

$712 86 55,500 00

56,212 86

Jnly 1, 1835, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884.

$18, 639 73 July 1, 1895, outstanding liabilities.

174 25

4*, 813 98

July 1, 1885, amount available....

7, 398 88 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal yearending June 30, 1887 8,000 00 Subroitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix V 4.)

5. Black River, Arkansas and Missouri.—Before any improvements were made upon this river its channel was choked with logs and snags and obstructed by overhanging trees, and in many places, shoals interfered with its navigation at low water by any but very light-draught boats. Its banks caved but little, and, except at the shoals, it was characterized by greater depth of water than is found in streams generally in its vicinity, due to its being narrow and its banks firm. The original plan for its improvement contemplated the remeral of the obstructions and the improvement of the shoals, the latter by wing-dams. A few sloughs were to be closed up so as to confine the water to the main chan. nel.

Up to June 30, 1881, $29,946.08 had been expended for these purposes. This expenditure had given great relief to navigation at certain points, but the work lacked continuity owing to there being no plant suited to the work.

By the act approved July 5, 1881, $20,000 was appropriated for this work, $15,000 of which was to be expended in building a light.(raught snag-boat.

This boat was completed in January, 1885, and in February and March pulled 120 snags, cut 9,291 trees, removed one drift-pile, and deadened 3,607 trees, and as the stage of water was too high for effective work it was transferred to White River and then laid up in April to wait favorable stage of water for further improvements.

There was expended up to June 30, 1885, for building snag-boat, $14,721.02; for snagging, &c., $4,943.70. The sum of $10,000 can be profitably expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1887, in snagging operations and in improving the shoals and closing up sloughs. An annual appropriation of $8,000 to $10,000 will be required to keep this river available for navigation : July 1, 1884, amount available......

$1,053 92 Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884.

20,000 00

21,053 92

July 1, 1825, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884.

$19,438 82 July 1, 1866, outstanding liabilities.

223 90

19, 664 72

July 1, 1885, amount available......

1,389 20

Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1887 10,000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix V 5.)

6. White River, Arkansas. Prior to improvement this river was much choked with drift piles, logs, and snags in its lower portion, and from Batesville up gravel bars, rocky shoals, chamel bowlders, and overhanging trees impeded navigation. The originally adopted project consisted in snagging operations and blasting of ledges and boulders and dam building to remove gravel bars or to close chutes, from time to time as appropriation warranted and commerce required.

At the beginning of the fiscal year the river was in excellent navi. gable condition for boats drawing not to exceed 3 feet of water, from its mouth to Newport, Ark. From Newport to Batesville there were many tronblesome snags, and from Batesville to Buffalo Shoals there were numerous bad shoals, rendering navigation very uncertain. From Buffalo Shoals to Forsythe, Mo., there were many fine reaches of river, but the depth of water on Buffalo Shoals and others less dangerous prevented any navigation at ordinary stages of water. The present proj. ect provides that the appropriation of July 5, 1884, be applied to removing snags and bowlders, and other obstructions to navigation, building wing-dams to improve shoals, repairs and care of plaut, and survey of the river, as provided for in the act, with a view to its improvement from Forsythe, Mo., as far down as funds will admit. The survey was begun early in May, 1,885, and was in progress at close of present fiscal year. Except when the interests of navigation required immediate im. provements, it was deemed best to do as little work as possible until the survey gave a better idea of where appropriations could be applied to best advantage. The survey will be completed early in the next tiscal year, when work will be resumed.

As it will be possible in another year to submit plans and estimates for the improvement of the upper river, the balance ou hand will be ap: plied to completing the survey and to the care of plant and the removal of snags from the worst reaches of the river util such time as a general plan of improvement can be fixed upon, which will be made the subject i of a special communication. Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884

$35,000 00 July 1, 16-5, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding lialoilities July 1, 1834.

$3,407 37 July 1, 1885, outstanding liabilities

1,786 02

10, 193 :39 July 1, 1885, amount available...

(See Appendix V 6.)

7. White River abore Buffalo Shoals, Arkansas.- Before any work was done on this particular reach the channel at low water was much choked by logs. In many places large bowlders rendered navigation dangerous or impossible, and in others gravel and rock shoals existed which beld the water iu pools. It was a stream to which lock and darn or movable dams could only be applied with any permanent success for low-water navigation.

The first appropriation was $50,000 by act of June 23, 1874, and this applied not only to this reach, but all the way from Jacksonport. This was expended in removing logs and the most dangerous bowlders and improving the shoals by wing-dams, but appears to have been more largely expended below this reach.

By act of August 14, 1876, $10,000 was appropriated for Buffalo Shoals. The first separate appropriation for the river above this point was by act of June 14, 1880, $20,00. It was then estimated that the total cost of the improvement would be about $101,000, which was to

24,806 61

be largely used in improviug shoal places. The next was by act of Angust 2, 1882, $1,000. To July 1, 1881, $23,181.63 had been expended from direct appropriations.

This expenditure has relieved navigation very much, but was too small in amount to cover only a few miles immediately above Buffalo Shoals. Nothing was expended during the year ending June 30, 1835, in order to husband the small balance until the survey contemplated should show where it could be used to the best advantage. The survey was in progress at the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1885. July 1, 1884, amount available..

$818 37 Joly 1 1555, amount available.

818 37 (See Appendix V 7.) 8. White Rirer between Jacksonport and Buffalo Shoals.—Before any work was done on this reach of river its channel was much obstructed by logs, bowlders, snags, overhanging trees and by gravel shoals. The natural channel even at extreme low water had in most places sufficient depth to meet the requirements of the boats navigating the river, provided that the abore obstacles were removed.

The original project contemplated the removal of these obstacles by snagging operations, by blasting, and by the erection of wing dams. This was afterwards modified so as to provide for a survey of the river and more thorough improvement thereafter, an accurate instruipental survey being necessary for this purpose.

Up to June 30, 1884, $74,690.94 had been expended on this reach of river. This had removed many boulders, improved the worst shoals, and cleared the river from Jacksonport to Batesville pretty effectually of snags, and reasonably so above Batesville, rendering navigation much safer, but much remained still to be done, especially between Bates. ville and Buffalo Shoals.

Daring the fiscal year ending June 30, 1855, the small balance of 81,309,00 remaining of the total referred to above was expended principally in suagging operations between Batesville and Buttalo Shoals, and, taken in conjunction with the new appropriation for improving the White River, Arkansas, threw the work all to improving the shoals, which was begun, but suspended on account of bigli water. Total appropriations

$79, 000 00 Tuial expended to June 30, 1884

74, 690 94 Joly 1, 1884, amount available..

4,309 06 July 1, 13-5, amount expended during fiscal year exclusive of outstanding liabilities July, 1434

4,309 06 (See Appendix V 8.) 9. White and Saint Francis rirers, Arkansas.—The heads of appropriation in the river and harbor act of July 5, 1881, separate these two rivers reqniring such different appliances for carrying on their improvement. The small balance of the last appropriation under the above head was expended in caring for property and in the running expenses of the snag-boat Wichita, which was transferred to the Saint Francis River for a short time. July 1, 1824, amount available.....

$724 67 Jnly 1, 1-35, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1834

724 67 (See Appendix V 9.)

10. Saint Francis River, Arkansas.--This appropriation, by act of July 5, 1881, is the first separate appropriation made for the entire river.

The first appropriation was made March 2, 1833, prior to which this river was much choked with drift-piles, logs, and snags, and its waters spread out through a great variety of sloughs, while overhanging trees added to the difficulties of navigation. The originally adopted project was principally for snagging operations, and attempts have been made to close up some of the many sloughs. Appropriations for this river bar. ing been united with the White River and also with the Black River, exactly how much had been expended upon the Saint Francis River to June 30, 1884, cannot well be stated.

At the close of the last fiscal year the river was in an excellent navi. gable condition from its mouth as high as Wittsburgh at medium stage of water. During high water boats have been as high as Lester's Landing. From Lester's Landing to Saint Francis the river was very badly choked with drift and divided into many channels, thus cutting off a rapidly developing section from all facilities of transportation.

A small part of the appropriation of July 5, 1884, was applied to building a decked scow, drawing from 10 to 12 inches of water, supplied with suitable appliances for removing obstacles and with accommodations for a working party. From May to the end of the fiscal year this boat was constantly employed working up.stream towards the worst reach above Lester's Landing.

The balance on hand will be used as far as possible to open a narrow channel as high up as Saint Francis, Ark. To maintain and widen this will require at least $8,000 annually for some time to come. The river has been worked to great disadvantage heretofore by chartered outfits, frequently ill-adapted to the work required. With the present outfit belonging to it better results will be secured. Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884....

$12, 000 no July 1, 182, amount espended during tiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1864

$7,462 58 July 1, 1885, outstanding liabilities.

932 10

8, 394 68 July 1, 1885, amount available.....

3, 605 32 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1887

8,000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and

harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix V 10.)

11. Saline River, Arkansas. Before improvement this river was obstructed by snags, logs, drift-piles, and overhanging trees and by shoals. The original plan for improvement contemplated the rendering of its channel navigable as bigh as practicable or as commerce demanded, by the removal of these obstructions, and then further improvement of the shoals if the commerce warranted.

There was expended upon this river up to June 30, 1884, $15,867.18. This bad given much relief to navigation, but there still remained be. tween Longview and the mouth many obstructions of the classes named.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1885, $5,074.52 has been expended. This has practically cleared the river.

Until the requirements of commerce are greater than they are now it is not recommended that any further appropriation be made. From $5,000 to $6,000 per year would keep this river in a fair navigable condition during medium stages of water for 250 miles from its mouth, that is up to Big Island, should it be required.

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