« PreviousContinue »
In addition to the above it is estimated that it will probably cost $65,000 more to complete the proposed improvement of 1880 and 1881, of wbich $25,000 will secure a thoroughly-cleared 7.foot navigation at high tide and ordinary stages of water from the sea to 154 miles upward to Wright's Bluff, and a similar 5-foot navigation 30 miles further to the Congaree and Wateree rivers; and the other $40,000 will com. plete the canalized outlet to Winyaw Bay. After this is done, from $3,000 to $5,000 per year will be needed to insure the maintenance of the improved channel. July 1, 1884, amount available
$17,049 58 Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884
15, 000 00
July 1, 1885, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884...
$14,582 96 July 1, 1025, outstanding liabilities.
15, 402 53
July 1 1885, amount available......
16, 647 05 (Amout (estimated) required for completion of existing project.... 145, 000 00 Amomut that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1887 80,000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river aud
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix M 12.)
13. Wateree River, South Carolina. Prior to improvement in 1882, this river had a low-water depth of from 3 to 4 feet from its mouth in the Santee upward 64 miles to Camden, its practical limit of steam navi. gation. From its montii upward 12 miles the river was completely blocked at all stages of water by sunken logs and stumps and by float. ing obstructions, thence 42 miles to Camden navigation was possible but dangerous except during high water. Its commerce was almost nothing
The original project of 1881–82, as continued to date, proposes to secure a safe and unobstructed 4-foot navigation over this entire distance at all stages of water.
Up to June 30, 1884, $22,838.19 was spent in all upon this improvement, giving a roughly-cleared 4-foot navigation over the 45 miles of river nearest Camden, and also over the 8 miles of river near its mouth.
During the last year, up to June 30, 1885, $4,888.98 more has been expended, giving a thoroughly-cleared 4-foot navigation at all stages of water from the mouth of the river 7 miles upward, and thence a roughly.cleared 4-foot navigation over the rest of the river 57 miles to Camden. In consequence of this improvement a steamboat line has been permanently established upon the whole length of the river. This long-desired and now possible navigation is blocked at present by two low railroad bridges across the river near its mouth. If these railroad obstructions were removed, it is estimated that the river commerce will increase at once by about $1,000,000 per year.
It is estimated that $30,000 can be profitably expended upon this improvement during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1887, in thoroughly clearing the river of all dangerous obstructions, such as snags and sunken logs, and in cutting down and pulling back from caving banks the trees which otherwise would soon fall into the river.
The above estimate, if appropriated in one sum, will probably complete the approved and adopted project, after which from $3,000 to $5,000 per year may be necessary to insure the maintenance of the im. proved channel.
Joly 1, 1884, amount available.....
$161 81 5, 000 00
5, 161 81 Jaly 1, 1835, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884 ..
4,888 98 Joly 1, 1885, amount available
272 83 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.. 30, 272 833 Amount that can be protitably expended in fiscal yearending June 30, 1807 30,000 09 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1860 and 1867. (See Appendix. M 13.)
EXAMINATIONS AND SURVEYS FOR IMPROVEMENT TO COMPLY WITH REQUIREMENTS OF THE RIVER AND HARBOR ACT OF JULY 5, 1831.
The following locality was examined by the local engineer in charge and not recommended for improvement:
1. Vortheast branch of Cape Fear River, North Carolina.—The report of this examination was transmitted to Congress and printed in House Ex. Doc. No. 71, Forty-eighth Congress, second session. (See also Appendix M 14.)
This report was subsequently revised by the officer in charge, and a partial improvement at a small cost recommended by him. (See Appendix M 14.)
And it appearing, after preliminary examination by the local engi. Deer, that the localities were worthy of improvement by the General Gorernment, Captain Bixby was charged with and completed the fol. lowing:
1. Bogue Sound, North Carolina, between New River and Beaufort.Reports transmitted to Congress and printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 238, Forty-eighth Congress, second session. (See also Appendix 1 15.)
2. Congaree River, South Carolina.-Reports transmitted to Congress and printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 254, Forty-eighth Congress, second session. (See also Appendix M 16.)
3. Black River, North Carolina.—(See Appendix M 17.)
4. Entrance to Winyaw Bay, near Georgetown, South Carolina.-(See Appendix M 18.)
DIPROVEMENT OF RIVERS AND HARBORS ON THE COAST OF SOUTH CAROLINA AND GEORGIA AND PART OF THE ATLANTIC COAST OF FLORIDA.
Officer in charge, Col. Q. A. Gillmore, Corps of Engineers, having under his iminediate orders First Lieutenants F. V. Abbot and O. M. Carter, Corps of Engineers.
1. Charleston Harbor, South Carolina.-The works of improvement now in progress of construction comprise two jetties, composed of riprap stone, resting on a broad foundation mattress of logs and brush, with a mattress hearting wherever deemed expedient and advantageous.
The two jetties spring, respectively, from Sullivan's and Morris islands, and converge towards each other on curves in such manner as to cross the bar on parallel lines at a distance of about 2,900 feet from each other. The object of the work is to establish and permanently maintain a practicable channel across the bar of not less tban 21 feet navigable depth at mean low water, where heretofore the available low. water depth has not usually exceeded 114 feet.
A greater navigable depth than 21 feet at mean low water can be ob. tained by increasing the length of the jetties and building them higher.
Previous to the adoption of this project, in 1878, there had been expended in improving this barbor since the close of the civil war, from 1871 to 1878, the sum of $93,700 in taking up the wrecks of fourteen iron-clads and wooden vessels and for other purposes.
North jetty.--Nothing was done on this work during the past fiscal year.
South jetty.-During the past fiscal year the bottom course of the south jetty was extended 2,288 feet seaward, of a uniform width of 108 feet and a height varying from 2 to 3 feet.' It is composed of a log and brush mattress, about 18 inches thick, overlaid with riprap stone. This work was laid in low water, depth rauging from 6 to 12 feet. The present seaward end rests in 8 feet water.
A second course of mattresses similar to those employed in the first course, but only from 50 to 55 feet wide, was laid, beginning at a point about 9,000 feet from the shore end and extending continuously 6,614 feet seaward.
The quantity of log and brush mattresses laid during the fiscal year amounted to 69,398 square yards, which were overlaid with 25,182 cubic yards of riprap stone.
At the close of the fiscal year the seaward end of the foundation course of the south jetty had reached a point 16,397 feet (or more than 3 miles) from the shore end at high-water mark on Morris Island, measured along the axis of the work, and about 2,300 feet within the 18-foot curve on the outer slope of the bar. As nothing was done during the last year on the north jetty the seaward end of its bottom course remained at the distance of 14,327 feet from the shore of Sullivan's Island, as previously reported.
Dredging between the jetties was commenced a few weeks before the close of the past fiscal year; 8,929 cubic yards of material were removed.
Mount Pleasant Spur-dikes.—To protect the exposed shore line of Mount Pleasant, southeast of the ferry-boat wharf, two spurs were built, one 477 feet long, located 1,750 feet from the wharf, the other 475 feet long, about 950 feet lower down. These works were built with funds from the last appropriation for improving Charleston Harbor.
The changes on the bar between the jetties are reported to continue favorably. The shoals known as Jim Evan's Shoal and Swash Reef are diminishing in areat, and the depths of water over them are generally increasing.
The 18-foot curve of the “inner pocket,” on the inward slope of the bar, has pushed seaward about 800 feet, due to scour alone. The outer 18-foot curve, near the seaward ends of the jetties, has remained about stationary during the year, thus indicating that the material removed by scour from between the jetties is not deposited right in advance of the jetty channel, but at places where it will do no harm. On the line of the south jetty the area of the high-water section is stated to have now been reduced by about 25 per cent., about equal to that of the north jetty.
No changes are reported in the general condition of the work since
The sea-beach of Sullivan's Island, from the vicinity of Fort Moultrie to the shore end of the north jetty, has been filling up during the year, escept near Bowman's jetty, where more or less washing has occurred.
Some slight washing of the sea-shore of Morris Island near the shore end of the south jetty has been observed, but not of a nature, apparently, to call for the adoption of any precautionary measures.
The progressive widening of Hog Island Channel will, in the opinion of the engineer officer in charge, ultimately require the construction of some work near its upper end to reduce the area of the water-way at the entrance, with a view of preventing the serious deterioration of the channel along the eastern front of the city. The much-complained of encroachment upon the shore of Mount Pleasant is ascribed to some extent to the increased flow of water through the enlarged Hog Island Channel. The two spur jetties recently built to protect the lower por: tion of the shore-line are beginning to collect sand, and will probably answer the purpose for which they were constructed. The engineer officer in charge regards the protection of the Mount Pleasant front as a private matter, and does not recommend a further appropriation by Congress for this object.
During the present fiscal year portions of the north and south jetties will be raised a little, and dredging will be continued to the extent of the funds on hand.
The appropriations thus far made by Congress for this improvement aggregate $1,295,000. The total expenditures from the beginning of operations to June 30, 1885, including outstanding liabilities, were $1,197,732.08, which sum includes $5,000 expended for the protection of the Mount Pleasant water front. July 1, 1884, amount available.....
$231 00 Amoont appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884.
250, 231 75
July 1, 1885, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive
of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884 July 1, 1885, outstanding liabilities
July 1, 1885, amount available..
97, 267 92 Amonnt (estimated) required for completion of existing project.. 1,712, 500 00 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal yearending June 30,1887 750,000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
barbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix N 1.)
2. Wappoo Cut, South Carolina.—Three appropriations, aggregating $23,000, have thus far been made by Congress for improving Wappoo Cut. The last of these appropriations, amounting to $3,000, was made by act approved July 5, 1884.
Wappoo Cut is a narrow, tortuous tidal stream, separating James Island from the mainland and connecting Stono and Ashley rivers.
The project of improvement submitted by the engineer officer in charge contemplates the establishment of a straighter channel, 6 feet by 90 feet
, low-water dimensions, at an estimated cost of $34,000. In its un. improved condition only 2 to 4 feet could be carried over the principal shoals at mean low water.
The plan of improvement comprised dredging at the entrances from Asbley and Stono rivers and through a portion of the cut; a cut-off through the marsh about 24 miles from Ashley River, closing three small tidal branches; and the construction of a short jetty at both the Stono and Ashley rivers.
Nothing was done during the past fiscal year for continuing this improvement.
The two former appropriations, aggregating $20,000, were expended in improving the westerly section of Wappoo cut, known as Elliott's Cut, in making a solid cut through the marsh of the neck of the bend known as Devil's Elbow, and in deepening the crooked channel between these places. Some dredging was done on the bar at the entrance into Wappo Cut from Ashley River. A dam was built across the tidal branch named Pompey's Cut, and a number of snags and overhanging trees were removed. A minimum draught of 51 feet at mean low water, can at present be carried through the entire length of Wappoo Cut.
The engineer officer in charge does not think that acceptable terms for resuming dredging can be secured until an additional appropriation is made.
He is also of the opinion that the small amount of the appropriations and the long delays in making them will cause an increase of the total cost of the improvement.
The total amount expended to June 30, 1885, is $19,972.16. July 1, 1884, amount available...
327 84 Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884.
3,027 84 July 1, 1885, amount available......
3, 027 04 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.... 15, 000 00 Amount that can be protitably expended in tiscal yearending June 30, 1887 15,000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1666 and 1867. (See Appendix N 2.)
3. Ashley River, South Carolina.--Ashley River is about 40 miles in length and rukis in a generally southeasterly direction. At its mouth the city of Charleston occupies its left bank.
The only appropriations ever made by Congress for improving this river were those of June 14, 1880, of $1,000; March 3, 1881, of $1,500; and July 5, 1884, of $2,000.
The plan of improvement comprised
1. The removal of a shoal at a place known as Accabee, about 8 miles above the city of Charleston, where, according to survey made in 1873, there was then only 9 feet of water at mean low tide; and
2. The removal of a shoal just below the Wando Phosphate Works, where only 6 feet of water was found at low tide.
It was proposed to increase the draugbt of water over these shoals by dredging to a depth of from 10 to 11 feet at mean low tide. The cost of the project was estimated at $5,000.
The first two appropriations were expended prior to June 30, 1882, in dredging a channel through the shallow crossing near the Wando works of over 1,000 feet length, 100 feet width, and an improved depth of 11 feet at mean low water.
Nothing was done during the past tiscal year. The engineer officer in charge thinks it possible that a favorable bid may be obtained during the current fiscal year.
An examination made in May, 1885, has shown that the improved channel at the Wando works remains in a satisfactory condition. It is doubted, however, whether the depths established there can be permanently maintained solely by the scouring power of the river, and it is expected that dredging will be needed from time to time unless works of contraction are constructed.