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the river is stirred up by a system of plows at the base of the suctionpipe. The proportion of solid matter to water that is pumped through pipes varies with the character of material, the height it has to be raised vertically, the length of the discharge-pipe, and velocity at which the pump is running at the tine. As much as 25 to 35 per cent. of solid matter is carried through the pipe under favorable circumstances. There are two of these machines on the work. During the month of June one of them dredged from the river and deposited on the flats 90.297.9 cubic yards of material at 12.37 cents per cubic yard, and the other 68,315 cubic yards at 15.45 cents per cubic yard, measured in place.
The amount available for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1886, is $358,027.93, but all of this is needed to meet liabilities on existing contracts. There is, practically, nothing available for commencing additional work which could be done with great advantage if funds were on hand. With the money now available it is proposed to widen the Virginia Channel both above and below Long Bridge, with a view to affording better facilities for navigation and to increase the sectional area of the river, so that freshets may be discharged when they occur without turning the water into the city; to deepen and widen the Washington Channel from its junction with the Eastern Branch to Long Bridge, the material taken from the river to be deposited on the flats, and all of Section I to be raised to a height of about 3 feet above high tide, that part of Section II next to Long Bridge and that adjacent to the Monument grounds to be filled up in the same way.
Provision should be made at an early day for retaining walls for the sewer canal, as the filling of the flats adjacent thereto cannot be doue satisfactorily until they are built. An estimate was submitted for concrete walls in a former report. It is understood that the District authorities propose to establish pumping machinery at the foot of Seventeenth street, to pump out into ueep water in the river the sewage filowing into the canal, the latter to be kept open to carry off the storinwater only. Such an arrangement would seem to be a satisfactory solution of this sewage problem, so far as it relates to the improvement of the flats.
The officer in charge of this improvement reports that the time has now come when something should be done in regard to Long Bridge. The Board of Engineers that recommended the present plan of improvement stated in its report that “the Long Bridge should be rebuilt at an early period during the progress of the improvements.” No plan can be made satista tory while this bridge remains a serious obstruction
a to the tiow of water beneath it. The riprap stone placed around the piers for their protection, together with the piers themselves, form a partial dam across the river, obstructing its flow, and will eventually cause a gradual deposit of sediment in the river above it. When the upper end of Washington Channel is closed, as it is intended to be, pro. Tiniou must be made in the Virginia Channel for discharging the freshet Water that now passes through both. This cannot be done under the present bridge; it should, therefore, be rebuilt on piers with greater epans.
It is desirable that the next appropriation be a large one, as the inprovement has now progressed so far that certain parts ought to be fin. ished as soon as possible in order to prevent damage by fresbets. Eight bundred thousand dollars can be profitably expended during the next fiscal year. The work could then go on with smaller appropriations to the end. If this sum be appropriated, it will be expended in continua
tion of the approved project ,by dredging the Virginia Channel and fill. ing Sections I and II, by building the inlet and outlet gates, by dredging a part of the tidal reservoir, and by widening the Virginia and Washington channels below Long Bridge, and filling Section III. July 1, 1884, amount available.....,
$53, 141 35 Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884.
553, 141 35
July 1, 1885, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884.
$185, 586 57 July 1, 1885, outstanding liabilities
9, 526 85
July 1, 1885, amount available
353, 027 93
Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project...... 1,816, 365 00 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1887.
800,000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix J 2.)
3. James River, Virginia. (In charge of Lieut. Col. William P. Craig. hill, Corps of Engineers, until July 24, 1884.)—When the improvement of the James River was regularly undertaken by the Government the navigation was obstructed by sunken vessels, by remains of military bridges, and by other obstructions purposely put in the river during the late war to prevent the national Geet from approaching too close to Richmond. There were, besides, other natural obstructions; Rocketts Reef and Richmond Bar had only 7 feet of water at mean low tide; from War: wick Bar, where the water was 13 feet, to Richmond, the channel was crooked and obstructed by dangerous rocks and ledges; the Dutch Gap Cut off was not then open, and the river was in a poor condition as regards its availability for commercial purposes.
The original project for improvement was to secure a depth of 18 feet at full tide (corresponding to 14.5 feet at low tide) to Richmond, with a channel width of 180 feet. This project had reached an advanced stage of progress when Congress, by act approved July 5, 1884, adopted the project looking to 22 feet at mean low tide from the sea to Richmond, the width to be 400 feet from the sea to City Point, 300 feet from thence to Drewry's Bluff, and 200 feet from thence to Richmond.
Up to the close of the year ending June 30, 1885, there has been expended on the improvement of this river by the United States the sum of $720,773.78. In addition to this the city of Richmond has also expended the sum of $432,171.98.
Operations during the past year have been conducted under the new project. The methods employed consist of dredging, rock excavation, and contraction of water-way by jetties or dikes. The work has been done partly by contract and partly by hired labor and the use of plant belonging to the city of Richmond and to the United States. The amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1885, was $84,979.61. The results of this expenditure may be stated as follows: Swan Point Shoal, where the depth was only 16.5 feet at mean low tide, was deepened to 20 feet at the same level. This increase of depth added 1 foot to the available depth on the river from its mouth to Kingsland Reach, a distance of 98 miles. The Dutch Gap Cut-off, which was troublesome to the largest class of vessels navigating the upper part of the river, was widened to 300 feet without increase of depth. This cut. off saves 54 miles of difficult navigation, and is a valuable aid to com. merce. At. Randolph Flats a deposit of sand bad taken place, which was increased after the subsidence of the May freshets ; 35,535 cubic Fards were dredged and the channel deepened to 17 feet at full tide. Abore Randolph Flats the work was chiefly rock excavation and dike building, the object being to widen Brewery Cut and Rocketts Reef, and commence the deepening of Goode's Rocks in accordance with the Dew project. The depth on Randolph Flats represents the depth that can be carried to Richmond.
The amount that can be profitably expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1887, is put at $100,000, the greater part of which would be applied between Kingsland Reach and Richmond. The excaration will be in solid rock for the most part, and unless the appropriation be large comparatively little progress can be made. July 1, 1831. amount available ...,
$29, 235 86 Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884.
104, 235 86
July 1.1835, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1861......
Julp 1. 18:5, amount available.
19, 236 22
400 000 00
(Amorint (estimated) required for completion of existing project... #, 402, 767 10 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending Jume 30, Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and I barbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix J 3.) 4. Shenandoah River, West Virginia. (In charge of Lieut. Col. Will. iam P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers, until July 29, 1884.)—Congress by act of June 14, 1850, made an appropriation of $15,000 for improving the Shenandoah River, West Virginia. By act of March 3, 1881, an addi. tional appropriation of $2,500 was made for the same object. A proviso Tas added to the latter act to the effect that neither of these appropriations shall be expeuded " until any corporate rights or franchises that may exist over said river shall have been relinquished to the United States to the satisfaction of the Secretary of War. This condition bas been complied with.
The portion of the river to be improved is that which lies in the county of Jefferson, West Virginia. The river through this portion is shallow
. and obstructed by shoals and rocky ledges, over which its waters flow with considerable velocity. It is not used at the present time to any extent for purposes of navigation. In former years a down-stream navi. gation was maintained by a company known as the Shenandoah River Narigation Company, chartered under the State of West Virginia. Locks, dams, and chutes were built and operated by this company, and it was authorized to collect tolls. The freshet of 1877 destroyed these Torks, and since that time there has been no commerce on the river. The project for the improvement bas for its objeet the rebuilding of the locks, dains, and chutes of the Navigation Company, so as to secure a dowo-stream navigation of about 18 inches. At the present time there is practically no commerce to be benefited by this improvement, and whether any would be built up by it is a question. Congress, by act of July 4, 1881, sold the sites of the lower locks that wowd be 'peerled in this improvement, and with them all the water privileges at Harper's Ferry: The right to use a portion of the water to operate these lorks, and the sites of the locks themselves, would, therefore, have to be pur chased again by the United States. The question has now been raised, Can the United States undertake this improvement in view of the late act authorizing the sale of the Harper's Ferry property?
Under the circumstances, and in view of the fact that there does not appear to be any commerce to be benefited by the improvement, further legislation is asked. July 1, 1884, amount available.
$17,306 20 July 1, 1885, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884..
1, 222 80 July 1, 1885, amount available....
16, 083 40 (See Appendix J 4.)
IMPROVEMENT OF THE HARBORS AT BRETON BAY AND SAINT JER.
OME'S CREEK, MARYLAND-OF THE CHANNEL AT MOUNT VERNONOF RAPPAHANNOCK RIVER, AND YORK RIVER, VIRGINIA-OF TRIBUTARIES OF THE LOWER POTOMAC, AND OF CERTAIN RIVERS IN VIRGINIA AND NORTH CAROLINA.
Engineer in charge, Mr. S. T. Abert, United States agent; super. vising engineer, Lieut. Col. W. P Craighill, Corps of Engineers.
1. Channel at Mount Vernon, Virginia.- Previous to the commence. ment of this improvement, there was a depth of but 4 feet at low water over the wide flat between the wharf at Mount Vernon and the main channel of the Potomac River, a distance of 1,900 feet.
The present project for the improvement of this channel was adopted in 1879, the object being to excavate a channel from deep water of the Potomac River to the wharf at Mount Vernon, which should have a width of 150 feet, and a navigable depth of from 6 to 7 feet at low water, with turning basin at the wharf. The amount expended thereon to the close of the fiscal year ended June 30, 1882, was $8,412.86, which resulted in securing a channel 145 feet wide, with a depth varying from 7 to 9 feet from the Potomac channel to the wharf, and a circular turning basin at the wharf of the same depth, with a radius of 150 feet.
The appropriation of $5,500 asked for is to be applied to widening the channel and enlarging the turuing basin, and will complete the pro. posed plan of improvement. July 1, 1884, amount available...
$37 14 July 1, 1885, amount available
57 14 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.
5, 500 00 Amount that can be protitably expended in tiscal year ending June 30, 1887 5, 500 00 Submitted in complauce wiib requirements of section 2 of river aud
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix K 1.)
2. Neabsco Creek, Virginia.—The obstruction to navigation in this stream consisted of a wide flat at the mouth, about 1} miles in length, over which but 24 feet could be carried at low water, and several short bars in the upper part of the creek where the channel is narrow and tortuous.
The present project for improvement was adopted in 1881, and contemplated the excavation of a channel through the bars, 100 feet wide and 7 feet deep at low water, from the Potomac River to Atkinson's Upper Landing (including a channel to Atkinsou’s Lower Landing and Willis's Wharf), a distance of about 14,800 feet. The amount expended to the close of the fiscal year ended June 30, 1884, was $4,942.73, and has resulted in securing a channel 50 feet wide, and from 4 to 5 feet deep at low water, from the Potomac River to a point 1,800 feet above Willis's Whart where the creek is narrow and has a sufficient depth, although other bars still exist above this point; $20,000 will complete the improvement as far as seems to be needed at the present time. July 1, 1834, amount available...
$57 27 July 1, 1085, amount available...
57 27 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project... 20, 000 00 Amount that can be protitabıly expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1887 20,000 00 Submittra in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix K 2.) 3. Breton Bay, Leonardtown, Maryland.—The harbor of Leonardtown, at tbe upper end of Breton Bay, prior to the commencement of the present improvement, had a least depth of 5 feet at low water, which was insufficient for the passage of steamers to and from the Leonardtown Wharf.
The bar which extended to the "9-foot"curve in the bay was about 1 mile in length.
KODE The present project for the improvement was adopted in 1878, the object being to excavate a channel, 150 feet wide and 9 feet deep, between the 9.foot curve in the bay and Leonardtown Wharf.
The engineer in cbarge recommends the increasing of the width of the channel to 200 feet, and enlarging tbe basin to a length of 800 feet and a width of 400 feet. The depth should not be less than 10 feet at low water.
The total cost of this work would be $26,000. The effect would be to preserve the depth in the channel. Up to June 30, 1885, $23,000 have been expended in removing 131,358 cubic yards of material. The channel is now 115 feet wide and from 9 to 10 feet deep: The appropriation of $26,000 will make a more permanent channel to the Leonardtown Wharf. Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884....
$3,000 00 July 1, 1865, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1881 .....
2,932 16 July 1, 1885, amount available......
47 84 Amondo (estimated) required for completion of proposed project..... 26, 000 00 Avonnt hat can be protitably expended in tiscal year ending June 30, 1857 26,000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
barbor acts of 1866 and 1807. (See Appendix K 3.) 4. Nomini Creek, Virginia. This stream is an important tributary of the Potomac, 82 miles below Washington, draining a large area of pro
Navigation was obstructed by a bar of sand and oyster shells at its mouth, over which but 3 feet could be carried at low water, and the danger in passing the bar was further increased by the cross-tide and an exceeilingly rapid current. The length of the bar to the 9-foot curve in Nomini Bay is 5,700 feet. After passing the bar 84 feet can be carried to Nomini Ferry, 3 miles above the mouth.
The origiual project for the improvement was adopted in 1873, the object being to excavate a channel through this bar 100 feet wide and 9 feet deep at low water, and was modified in 1879 so as to provide for a width of 150 feet.