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transmitted to Congress and printed in House Ex. Doc. No. 71, Forty. eighth Congress, second session. (See also Appendix D 28.)
And it appearing, after preliminary examination by the local engi. neer, that the localities were worthy of improvement by the General Government, Lieut. Col. W. McFarland was charged with and com: pleted the following:
1. Huntington Harbor.-Report transmitted to Congress and printed as House Ex. Doc. No. 200, Forty-eighth Congress, second session. (See also Appendix D 29.)
2. Breakwater at Falkner's Island. (See Appendix D 30.)
Capt. James Mercur, Corps of Engineers, was charged with the exam. ination and survey of Hudson River from Troy to the mouth of the canal. His report thereon was transmitted to Congress and printed in House Ex. Doc. No. 71, Forty-eighth Congress, second session. (See also Appendix D 32.)
REMOVING OBSTRUCTIONS IN EAST RIVER AND HELL GATE, NEW YORK.
The Chief of Engineers retains the charge of these works, with, during the year, Capt. James Mercur, Corps of Engineers, to October 1, 1884, and Lieut. Col. Walter McFarland, Corps of Engineers, on duty in connection with them, and Lieut. G. McO. Derby, Corps of Engi. neers, in superintendence of the operations at Flood Rock and of the steam-drilling scow.
In its original condition the channel of East River and Hell Gate contained many large and dangerous rocky obstructions to navigation.
The depth over Diamond Reef at niean low water was 171 feet; over Coenties Reef, 14.3 feet; over Frying Pan, 11 feet; over Pot Rock, 20 feet; over Heel Tap, 12.1 feet; over reef at the North Brothers, 16 feet; Hallet's Point, from the shore at Astoria, projected under water 325 feet to the contour line of 26 feet at mean low water, and embraced an area of about 3 acres. The Middle Reef, with an area of about 9 acres, lay in the middle of the channel at Hell Gate, having a small backbone projecting above high water, and caught vessels swept upon it by the ebb currents, which passed directly over the rock. Hallet's Point and the Middle Reef may be said to have been alternate in mischievous functions; vessels which escaped one ran a great risk of fall. ing upon the other. What added considerably to the danger from these reefs was the bend at right angles of the river at this spot.
The originally adopted project for the improvement was the least extensive of three projects discussed by the engineer in charge.
That one now being carried out was judged by the authorities in 1867 to be too extensive and costly. The project first adopted was the removal of Pot Rock, Frying Pan, Way's Reef, Shelldrake, the rock off Negro Point, the rocks near Wolsley's bath-house, Blackwell's Rock, portions of Hallet's Point, and Scaly Rock. Sea walls were designed for the Middle Reef, Hog's Back, the Bread and Cheese, and a beacon for Rylander's Reef.
The project most favored by the engineer in charge, which included likewise the total removal of Hallet's Point and of the Middle Reef, bas, as time passed, received the approval of the authorities.
The project first intended solely for Hell Gate has also been modified by incorporating with it rocky obstructions in the East River, Diamond Reef, Coenties Reef, a reef near the North Brothers, and Pilgrim Rock, East River.
The annount expended thereou to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1884, was $3,162,043.31.
The condition of the improvement was the removal of Diamond, Coenties, and Way's reefs and Shelldrake to a depth of 26 feet at mean low water; the breaking up of Heel Tap Rock, the tunneling and explosion of Hallet's Point, and removal of the débris to the depth of 26 feet at mean low water; the tunneling of the Middle Reef (Flood Rock) to the extent of 23,180.9 linear feet, and removal therefrom of 70,349.9 cubic yards of stone, measured in place; the removal of the reef off the North Brothers Island to a depth of 26 feet at mean low water.
The amount expended during the year ending June 30, 1885, was $99,232.75, and has been for extending the galleries of Flood Rock over an area of three quarters of an acre, and drilling 43,784.4 feet of 3 inch holes for the final blast, and removing Pilgrim Rock to 24 feet at mean low water.
The work done under the project for this improvement exceeds that which was originally projected, Diamond and Coenties reefs and a reef near the North Brothers Island, and the Pilgrim Rock having been added to it. The removal of these, together with that of Lallet's Point, Way's Reef, and Shelldrake to the named depths, the partial removal of Heel Tap, Frying Pan, and Pot Rock, and the work already done on Flood Rock, constitute about four-fifths of the whole project. The work already done has been of great relief to navigation. The removal of Middle Reef (Flood Rock), now in hand, will nearly double the width of the east and most used channel in Hell Gate.
During the year ending June 30, 1886, the available balance, $267,049.74, will be applied to the exploding of the mine in Flood Rock and the removal of a portion of the broken stone after the explosion.
The amount that could profitably be expended in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1887, is $500,000, which should be expended as follows: For grappling and removing the broken stone after explosion of Flood Rock, $250,000; for completing removal ot' Pot Rock, Frying Pan, and Heel Tap, at Hell Gate, and for beginning the removal of a reef near Diamond Reef, in the East River, $180,000; and for commencing work on Negro Point, $70,000.
The es:imated amount required for the entire and permanent completion of the work of improvement in accordauce with the approved and adopted project is $1,601,340.67. July 1, 1884, amount available
$371, 978 87 Received from sale of fuel to Lieutenant Derby
66 00 Received from sale of property to Raritan River, New Jersey.
373, 601 87
July 1, 1885, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1804
$97, 098 60 Jaly 1, 1855, outstanding liabilities..
105, 652 13
July 1, 1885, amount available ..
267, 949 74 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project...... 1,601, 340 67 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1887
500, 000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix E.)
IMPROVEMENT OF RIVERS AND HARBORS IN THE VICINITY OF THE
CITY OF NEW YORK AND IN NORTHERN NEW JERSEY-DEEPENING GEDNEY'S CHANNEL THROUGH SANDY HOOK BAR, NEW YORK.
Officer in charge, Maj. G. L. Gillespie, Corps of Engineers.
1. East Chester Creek, New York.—The original condition of naviga. tion was, between Town Dock and Lockwood's, a draught of less than 7 feet at high water, through an intricate, crooked, and parrow cban. nel; a draught in the channel south of Goose Island rather more than 7 feet at high water; and a dangerous reef of bowlders, &c., in close proximity to the course of vessels in passing the draw at Pelham Bridge.
The originally adopted project, 1872, was for making a channel of 9 or 10 feet draught at high water from Town Dock to a point 3,000 feet above Lockwood's, which included the construction, not yet undertaken, of a tidal basin above Lockwood's.
The modification of 1873 provided for the building of 5,800 feet of diking, partly on both bauks, from Town Dock to the entrance, a dis: tance of 14 miles, for the better maintenance of the improved channel.
The project bas since been supplemented by provision for deepening the cbappel from Town Dock to below Goose Island to afford 9 feet depth, mean high water. The estimated cost of the project was $136,500. The range of tides at Town Dock is 7.1 feet, approximately. The amount expended to June 30, 1884, was $53,918.50. At that date the bowlders and gravel bad been removed from the channel at entrance near Pelbam Bridge; the channel on west side of Goose Island had been completed, 1,500 feet long, 125 feet wide, and 9 feet deep, mean bigh water; the channel between Goose Island and Town Dock had been opened, 2,000 feet long, uninimum width 40-45 feet, widening to 90 feet at Town Dock; and the cut through the meadow, 2,000 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 9 feet deep, had been excavated, to Lockwood's, reducing the distance between those docks from 5,200 feet to 3,200 feet.
No work had been done toward the excavation of the tidal basin above Lockwood's, the excavation of channel above Town Dock, nor toward the construction of the dikes below Town Dock.
No work was done during the year.
The amount that can be profitably expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1887, is $20,000, and, if appropriated, will be applied in widening the channel below Town Dock to 80 feet, and in building 1,500 feet of diking, partly on both banks, for maintaining the improved channel from the entrance to Town Dock. The special benefits to be derived from the improvement are the better maintenance of the improved channel and greater facilities afforded to vessels for reaching the upper wharves of the river adjacent to East Chester, Mount Vernon, and other towns, whereby supplies may be brought and products shipped at less cost to the inhabitants of the valley. July 1, 1884, amount available.
$81 50 July 1, 1885, amount available..
81 50 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.... 82,500 00 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1887 20, 000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1806 and 1867. (See Appendix F 1.)
2. Canarsie Bay, New York.-The object of this improvement is to connect Canarsie Landing with the deep water of Jamaica Bay by a channel having a depth of 6 feet at mean low water, the original depth being only 44 feet across the flats. The original project, adopted in 1879, contemplated the construction of an interior tidal basin by means of timber dikes, and no important amendments, alterations, or addi. tions thereto bave been inade. The range of tides is 4.6 feet, approximately. The amount expended to close of fiscal year ending June 30, 1884, was $18,000, and at that time the channel from Jamaica Bay to Canarsie Landing was 3,000 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 6 feet deep at mean low water, and the north side was protected by a timber dike, starting at the entrance and running 1,000 feet westward towards the landing.
By act of July 5, 1884, $5,000 were appropriated for continuing the improvement. It was applied in adding 50 feet to the north dike, for the better protection of the eastern end of dike, and in widenivg the channel at the entrance to 125 feet, at the western end of dike to 100 feet for a distance of 400 feet, and near the landing to 50–75 feet.
The amount of material removed was 7,535 cubic yards. The channel has been well maintained during the year. The amount that can prof. itably be expended to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1887, is $25,000, which, if appropriated, will be applied to the extension of the north dike 250 feet, the construction of 300 linear feet of the projected south dike, and to the widening of the channel to 100 feet across the flats adjacent to the landing. This improvement will better maintain the
. channel already improved, and will add materially to the navigable facilities of the harbor, whose industries have an estimated annual value of $1,500,000.
Four or five hundred vessels of all classes, including yachts, are engaged in the fishing trade alone. July 1, 1884, amount available
$5, 000 00 July 1, 1885, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884....
4,513 26 July 1, 1885, amount available....
486 74 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.. 65, 000 00 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1887 25,000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix F 2.)
3. Sheepshead Bay, New York. The original condition of the navi. gable channel was, for the entrance, a depth of little over 2 feet at mean low water, and for the interior channel not less than 4 feet, except at two narrow bulkheads across said channel. The originally adopted project (1879) was to deepen the entrance by means of converging jetties, and to improve the interior channel by longitudinal dikes, so placed as in some instances to form tidal reservoirs for the scour of the channei. The project was revised in 1881, and provides for excavating a channel at the outlet to connect the bay with Dead Horse Inlet and to dredge the interior channel.
The range of tides is 4.5 feet, approximately. The amount expended to close of fiscal year ending June 30, 1884, was $10,976.25. At that date an improved channel connected Sheepshead Bay with Dead Horse Inlet, which was 1,500 feet long, 40 feet wide, with 4 ieet depth at mean low water.
The ebb currents set well through the improved channel, and the improved depths have been maintained. The bar at the original entrance, immediately eastward of the eastern end of Coney Island, is practically bare at lowest tide. By act of July 5, 1884, the sum of $5,000 was appropriated for continuing the improvement. Proposals were opened September 17, 1884, for widening the improved channel to 60 feet by dredging, and a contract awarded, which expires October 15, 1885.
The amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1885, was $55.92.
No work of improvement was done during the fiscal year. The amount that can be profitably expenied during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1887, is $10,000, and, if appropriated, will be applied in enlarging the channel at the eutrance to 100 feet and increasing its depth to 6 feet, mean low water, and also in opening a channel through the shoal at the eastern end of the bay 2,000 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 6 feet deep. This is a small, sheltered harbor, used principally by fishing vessels of light draught. The estimated value of the fishing industry is $1,000,000 annually, the principal market being New York City. Over 200 vessels are engaged in legitimate trade, wbile many pleasure boats frequent the harbor. The benefit to be expected from the improvement is greater facilities for vessels entering the harbor and greater en. couragement to an important commerce just developing. July 1, 1884, amount available ...
$23 75 Amount appropriated by act approved July 5, 1884.
5, 000 00
5, 023 75 July 1, 1885, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1884
55 92 July 1, 1885, amount available....
4,967 83 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project..
84, 000 00 Amount thatcan be profitably expended in tiscal year ending June 30, 1887 10,000 00 Submitted in compliance with requirements of section 2 of river and
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. (See Appendix F 3.)
4. Sumpawanus Inlet, New York.-The original project, adopted in 1880, provides for the dredging of a channel 4,500 feet long, 100 to 150 feet wide, and 5 feet deep at mean low water from the 5-foot curve of the bay to the town of Babylon. The original navigable depth was 2 feet, mean low water. The range of tides is 1.1 feet, approximately. The amount expended to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1884, was $6,893.07, and at that date an improved channel existed 1,000 feet long and 75 feet wide and 5 feet deep at mean low water, connecting the long wbarf with the 5-foot curve of the bay, and cuts around the wharf were made for the convenience of vessels using the inlet as a refuge during easterly gales. No work was done during the year, for want of funds. The amount that can be profitably expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1837, is $10,000, and, if appropriated, will be applied in extending the improved channel 1,500 feet towards the town of Babylon, 75 feet wide and 5 feet deep, mean low water, so that vessels may have a better anchorage during easterly gales.
The benefit resulting from the improvement will be increased protection to vessels using the harbor during easterly storms, and in. creased facilities for vessels of deeper draught.
Two hundred vessels engaged in the fishing trade constantly use the harbor. The money value of the commerce affected by the improve: ment is estimated at $500,000 to $750,000 annually. July 1, 18-4, amount available..
$106 93 July 1, 1825, amount available