Page images
PDF
EPUB

a

H.

solid basis for statistical conclusions. Examples are given of generalizations relating to the connection between physical conditions and mental traits and achievements.

The importance of study of defects of sight, hearing, and the incidents of development in arranging plans of education, is illustrated by many facts derived from study of children in Chicago, Washington, and elsewhere.

Instruments used in physical examinations are described and figured, and their uses explained. Several pages are devoted to examples to show the nature of hypnotism and the uses and dangers of suggestion in medical and pedagogic treatment.

Generalizations as to growth, sight, sound, memory, skin, taste, and smell, movement, attention, volition, and moral sense are given to show the value of results already reached. The notes on criminology are largely made up of former publications of the author. At the end is a bibliography of child study:— ARTHUR MACDONALI), Senate Document 400, 57th Congress, ist Session.

Some Divorce Statistics.-Dr. Friedrich Prinzing, it the Zeitschrift für Socialwissenschaft, gives some interesting divorce statistics. The number of divorces in different countries depends, of course, largely on creeds and laws, as well as on national temperament and morals; but, on the whole, the proportion of divorces to the sum total of married lise is remarkably small among the European nations, ranging from 0.42 and 0.1 per thousand married couples. In Japan divorce is much more common, and in the United States the negroes largely swell the number. Everywhere it seems on the increase. A significant feature in Germany is the growing number of divorces granted on the ground of mutual agreement. For the five years ending 1897 there were in Berlin alone 173, 302, 324, 416, 457. Children, as might be expected, are the best preventive of voluntary divorce. In Berlin, in 1897-98, in one thousand divorces the surviving children were as follows: no children, 54 per cent.; one child, 21.3 per cent.; two children, 13.8 per cent.; three children, 6 per cent.; four children, 2.6 per cent.; five children, 1.1 per cent.; six children, i per cent. - a strong argument for large families. Early marriages among the poor cause much misery in our large towns; they are also the least-enduring unions. The vast proportion of divorces is among those who married under twenty years of age. As marriage has grown later, the ratio of divorces steadily decreases. Divorce rules highest in the sixth or seventh year after marriage. - Journal of the Society of Comparative Legislation (London), July, 1902.

Municipal Milk for the Children. There are very few questions of a more serious nature than that of the great loss of life among infants. During the years 1891-1900, of every 100,000 births in London, 28,102 — more than a quarter of the whole — died before reaching the age of five. So far, only one local body in London has particularly set its mind to deal with the question. The Battersea Borough municipal council has opened a depot for sterilized humanized milk, to combat diarrhwa, one of the chief causes of the death-roll. The experiment has proved a decided success. Customers come from all parts of the borough. During this year there have been only twenty-four deaths from diarrhca among children, as compared with 150 last year, and only in one case was the child receiving milk from the depot. It cannot be said that the depot is entirely the cause of this drop, but we think we are thoroughly justified in saying that it has in some small measure been responsible for the improved death-rate.Municipal Journal (London).

R. M.

THE AMERICAN

JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY

VOLUME VIII

JANUARY, 1903

NUMBER 4

AROUND THE ISLAND OF CEBÚ ON HORSEBACK.

Two of us made a trip around the island of Cebú recently on an observation and inspection tour in connection with the department of education, . We left at night and on horseback. The glory of a tropical night, with the full moon flooding the great stretches of cocoanut palms and dancing on the sea, can never be described and never be forgotten.

The island of Cebú is one hundred and thirty-five miles long and only ten to fifteen wide. Down the center runs a mountain range of no great height, but making communication difficult from coast to coast. All the towns are along the sea. Owing to the condition of the roads and the absence of bridges, one cannot travel far by vehicle. Two-wheeled rigs called quiless are met with in the towns, and the picturesque but painfully slow Caraboo carts along the country roads.

We traveled on American army horses. There is no more striking contrast in the Philippines than that between the great powerful American horse and the tiny little native pony. The natives admire and fear our horses greatly, and if they were as ugly in disposition as the native ponies, they certainly would be dangerous animals.

Cebú was the first of these islands discovered and settled by the Spaniards. It has a population of over five hundred thousand, and has the reputation of being one of the richest in the group. It produces sugar, capra, hemp, rice, corn, and tobacco. It has, however, neither minerals nor timber, and, in spite of its reputation, the people, for the most part, are miserably poor. The native hut, built of bamboo, thatched with grass, set up on piles, consisting often of only one dirty room, devoid of furniture and decorations, is beggarly beyond description. In the

[graphic]

GOING TO CHURCH IN THE PROVINCES IN CARABOO, OR BUFFALO CARTS,

best houses, built substantially of wood or stone, are sometimes found pianos, books, and pictures.

Needless to say, the people wear the finest clothes possible. In the towns men wear trousers and shirt tail outside the trousers. In the country, the common hombre dispenses with both and wears a breech-cloth instead.

The hospitality of the native is very gracious. There are no inns on the island outside of the city of Cebú, and the traveler must, of necessity, go to the house of the presidente, or to the convent and put up with the padre. If he pays a social call, tobacco and drinks are invariably set forth. To decline both is considered a rudeness. All Americans are supposed to drink whiskey, and much whiskey. The natives do not understand why a part of us should be total abstainers and the rest given to excess. They themselves are very temperate.

The table etiquette is Spanish in origin. All the plates are stacked up in front of one at the beginning of the meal. Meat,

[graphic][merged small]

strange to say, forms the principal part of every course. Rice seems to be the only vegetable in everyday use, and it is served three times a day. What the master does not like he often spews out of his mouth to the cats and dogs on the floor. Women and children do not appear much in public. The host will accept nothing for his hospitality, and repeatedly assures you that the house and all it contains are yours.

In the organization of the provinces there is nothing that corresponds to our counties or townships. Under the provincial government — consisting of an elected governor and two Americans appointed to the offices of treasurer and supervisor - are the pueblos. These towns, with their suburbs called barrios, cover all the territory. In a place of 30,000 inhabitants, the central division or pueblo proper may have only 3,000, the rest of the people being scattered over a dozen or more barrios covering a large amount of ground.

The officers of these pueblos are elected and consist of a presidente or mayor, and a vicepresidente, secretary, treasurer, and councilmen. There are also some school-teachers and police. In a town of 30,000 people the presidente will get something like $25 a month, the secretary and treasurer $20, the teachers $8, and the police $4. In the rural towns the police force is generally armed with spears and bolos.

Americanizing influences are at work in many of these places. One can see it in the manners and dress of the people, and also in such absurdities as “calle del Gen. Huges," " calle del W. H. Taft," "calle del Col. French," ctc.

There are two men in every community who control it absolutely. They are the presidente and the padre. If you wish to reach the public in any way, you must approach it either through the representative of the government or of the church. Quite frequently these two dignitaries are at odds.

If you are a friend to one you are perforce enemy to the other.

There is probably nothing concerning which more misapprehension exists than concerning church affairs in these islands. During the war the people rose in rebellion against the frailes, or Spanish priests, and drove them out. Native padres or seculares took possession of the parishes, and to every appearance give complete satisfaction. So far as I could see, the people have no quarrel with the church or the native priests, while against the frailes there is still the strongest feeling.

C'nder the Spanish régime the priests were a regular part of governmental machinery, and were paid by the government. Now they look to their parishioners. No collections are taken at service, but there are stories of extortionate charges in con. nection with the rites of marriage, baptism, and funerals.

Some of the churches are in excellent order and are somewhat impressive, though, owing to lack of art in them, there is not that

« PreviousContinue »