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The law of 1897 attempted to regulate working overhours. But in its particularizing and its ambiguity it has effectually destroyed its value, and we find the normal day exceeded from one to three times per week, and increased by from three to eight hours in some places. The attempt to regulate night work is told in practically the same story.

2. As to the wages received.-No complete statistics are available for determining the average wages of the Russian working class. A comparison of the wages received in the province of Moscow and in the state of Massachusetts has some value when properly interpreted.

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The striking difference in favor of the Massachusetts laborer must be taken in connection with these facts; the Russian cost of food is much less, the standard of life is much lower, and the demands for expenditure much fewer, than the American. Yet it remains true that the Russian spends 57 per cent. of his income, while the American spends only 49 per cent. of his, for nourishment. The "truck system" is still enforced upon the Russian laborer, but against it and the other unfavorable conditions the intelligence of the working class is beginning to arouse them, and this means better days for the class.-W. RAKHMETOV, "La situation de la classe ouvrière en Russie," in La Revue socialiste, September, 1902. T. J. R.

Invention Considered as the Cause of Social Evolution.- The title poorly expresses my thought. When I say that social transformations are explained by the imitation of individual initiatives, I do not mean that invention is the only active force, or, to speak truly, that it is even the strongest force, but that it is the directive, determining, explicative force.

The direction of great, constant forces, of forces periodic in their action, is related to small, new, accidental forces, which, grafting themselves on the former, determine a new kind of periodic reproduction. In other words, a variation ingrafts itself upon repetitions and becomes a point of departure for new repetitions.

In the social world the element variation, accident, germ, is represented by the individual initiative, invention. The element repetition consists of climate, soil, race, as well as of tradition, custom, taught ideas, and acquired habits. Climate and race

consist in periodic reproductions of movements. Periodic also are the successive generations of the same race that reproduces hereditarily the same characteristics, the same functions. On the other hand, tradition, custom, instruction, education, consist only in imitative repetitions, in the transmission of examples.

If periodic forces alone acted, there would be no social transformations. If individuals should resemble each other in all particulars, if hereditary repetition should be complete, without any individual variation, progress would be impossible. The question is how and why, in organized society, language, government, religion, morality, or art is modified at a given time.

To whatever category invention may belong, it has always the characteristic of being an intersection of imitative rays, an original combination of imitations.

The combination is always binary. Whatever may be the number of imitative rays required in order that from their intersection there may spring a new invention (itself destined to spread imitatively), they divide themselves into two groups, which unite as if there were only two elements to combine. Or rather, in a total invention we nearly always discover several acts of invention separated by some intervals, several elementary inventions, each of which is a binary combination, a coupling.

What is it which makes an original combination of imitative rays? Two things: (1) the characteristic mental state of the individual brain in which the meeting of rays takes place (this does not mean that the brain must be superior to others in all particulars, but merely that it must be different, more adapted to the kind of function it is to fill); (2) the direct view, in general of external reality perceived under I The ruble is taken at value of 60 cents.

a new aspect, by the individual brain that has momentarily escaped the social hypnosis. It is thanks to this perception of external nature at a new angle that the meeting of imitative rays in the brain of the savant, the engineer, the artist, becomes fecund and is transformed into invention. Thanks to this direct and genial contact with nature, two known ideas, which hitherto appeared to have nothing in common, appear united in a causal relationship. Newton, seeing an apple fall, conceived the fall of bodies and the movement of the moon around the earth as two similar phenomena, results of the same cause, universal gravitation.

Whatever, on the one hand, favors the spread and interference of examples, and whatever, on the other hand, favors variety, inequality, individual originality, tends to increase inventiveness, to push on to progress. An enlightened democracy need not fear individual singularities and superiorities, since, thanks to diffusive imitation, the singular and superior individual works only for the whole. All that is best in the individual becomes socialized.

Will advancing civilization render less and less necessary these diversities and even these individual superiorities? No, for, other things being equal, the simplest inventions appear first. In proportion as society renders easier the imitative expansion of ancient inventions, the difficulty of new inventions becomes greater, for the same reason that the longer a mine is exploited, the greater also becomes the difficulty of extracting new minerals. The greatest geniuses are needed in order that new branches may spring forth on the old trunk of mathematics, physics, biology, etc. It is as impossible for the average civilized man to rise to new inventions as it is for a child of five years to collect with his hands fruit six feet above his head. But when a great man has gathered fruit high on the boughs of the tree of science, men of the lowest races may eat thereof.-Condensed from a paper read by M. G. TARDE before the Société de Sociologie de Paris, entitled, "L'invention considérée comme moteur de l'évolution sociale," and published in Revue internationale de sociologie for July, 1902. R. M.

Education and the Social Ideal.—When education is consciously regarded as a process of social transformation, the educational necessity of a definite conception of the social end to be attained through education becomes apparent. The school cannot consciously assist in transforming society unless the teacher has clearly in mind an ideal humanity into which society is to be transformed.

There are at least three elements that must enter into a rational and realizable social ideal: (1) a high degree of social intelligence; (2) an improved social organization resulting from social economy; and (3) the co-operative spirit.

Social intelligence is a manifestation of social consciousness, with which it develops pari passu. It denotes the ability of society to act in the interest of its members. The development of the consciousness of the individual is the natural outcome of his experience in looking out for himself. The similar experience of each social group warrants us in assuming that social progress may be depended upon to develop the consciousness of each group, and this consciousness will manifest itself in the gradual formation of the social intelligence, which has been defined as that " consensus of individual intelligence which forms a public opinion, a public conscience, a public will, and is manifested in law, institutions, and administration." The intensification of the social consciousness and the improvement of social intelligence seem to be the inevitable concomitants of further social development.

Social intelligence will result in the social employment of the principle of economy. "The history of progress," says Ritchie, "is the record of a gradual elimination of waste." The elimination of waste is a characteristic of intelligent action. Progress in individual or social intelligence may be measured by the degree of economy practiced.

The third indispensable element of the social ideal is the co-operative spirit, and this element is implied by the other two. Compulsory co-operation in the attainment of a worthy social ideal means either that the social ideal conceived is not a rational one, or that the individual is not intelligent enough to see that his interests are bound up in its realization. Voluntary co-operation alone can eliminate the waste characteristic of modern society. Competition, it is said, is the mainspring of human prog. Competition, however, may be divided into rivalry in securing individual


advantages, profit, social or political preferment, and the like, and a rivalry in promoting the common good. As a rivalry in the attainment of primarily individual ends, it is a transient phenomenon in society, and must give way to co-operation as rapidly as social intelligence is developed. Competition has indeed been a strong factor in social developmeut, but so also have tyranny, slavery, and cannibalism, and all the various forms of exploitation. Must these go on because, in the absence of social intelligence, they have served a purpose in social development?

Obviously, social organization is not directly the work of the school. As to social intelligence, the school is necessarily, with reference to knowledge, a distributing point. The mere distribution of knowledge, however, may not result in the development of social intelligence. A great function of the school is to socialize the knowledge distributed. The socialization of knowledge, however, is but a step in the transformation of the individual from the competitive to the co-operative type, and this the school should consciously attempt to do. Competition is now giving way to co-operation. Education should hasten the movement. It should strive to produce a different type of man; a man who employs his energy and talent in assisting his fellowmen to higher usefulness rather than in rendering their efforts nugatory or futile; a man whose motto is that of the English prince, "Ich dien'," and whose conduct illustrates his motto.

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Modern education is chiefly engaged in developing the competitive type of individuality. The competitive man— the warrior, the "successful man is held up for emulation. Prizes, marks, honors, distinctions, take the place of functional pleasure in acquiring and using knowledge, and the gratification which always comes from successful co-operation toward a worthy end.

If the social ideal suggested is a practical and a desirable one, then the school should be consciously employed to realize it. It should never lose sight, of course, of its immediate aim of developing to the fullest possible extent the capacities and powers of the individual. But it must ever keep in mind the necessity of socializing these powers, of realizing a double aim.-IRA W. HOWERTH, "Education and the Social Ideal," in Educational Review, September, 1902. R. M.

Neo-Malthusianism in Australia.-The abnormal decrease in the growth of the population of Australia is one of the most serious and threatening conditions in relation to the future of that country. Earlier in the history of the country the growth of the population was extraordinarily rapid. The unprecedented economical development due to the great value of the natural resources of the country, the loans of English capital, and the indiscreet prodigality in dispensing of public lands, led to a rapid increase in the number of marriages and in the population.

Today the stratum of alluvium is exhausted, and the cultivation of the soil now demands greater capital. The yield of grains has fallen 40 per cent. When, in addition to this, one considers the devastation in grazing brought about by the continuous droughts and the fall of prices in the wool market, he can form a picture of the present economic conditions in Australia. The struggle for existence is no lighter there than in Europe or America. All kinds of occupations are overcrowded. This failing in the economical resources has exercised a strong influence upon the number of marriages and births in Australia, as, in fact, such a condition does everywhere. Upon this question the official statistics speak with alarming clearness. According to Coghlan, the director of the Statistical Bureau of New South Wales, the number of births per one hundred marriages in the years from 1861 to 1898 fell from 30.61 to 20.21 per cent. in New South Wales, from 28.54 to 19.30 in Victoria. Since 1898 the percentage of births in Queensland fell from 28.80 to 20.80, in New Zealand from 28.16 to 21.42. This diminution in the percentage of births is found everywhere, and the conditions point toward a still greater decline.

Are there additional causes for this decline? The climate is healthful, and the death-rate is low, so that we must seek elsewhere for further causes of the condition. In the first place, it should be noticed that one-fifth of the women earn a living by means of their own work, and many employers will not hire married women. This tends to raise the age of marriage, and, therefore, to promote the decline in the birthrate. Again, the families are, as a rule, small, especially in the cities. The theories of Malthus are followed. Almost everywhere the so-called Zweikindersystem of France is prevalent.

The decline in the birth-rate soon attracted the attention of the political economists of the country, who assigned three direct causes of the phenomenon: (a) that among all married women the number of fruitful marriages has declined; (6) that the birth-rate has fallen constantly and very considerably in the last twenty years; (c) that the women born in Australia are less fruitful than those immigrating from Europe.

In all the European countries, with the exception of France, the birth-rate is much higher. While in New South Wales, the most favorable division of the country in this relation, the birth-rate in 1898 was 28.42 per thousand, in England and Wales it was 29.4, in Scotland 30.8, in Germany 36.0. In the year 1890 in New South Wales the excess of births over deaths was 2.36 per cent., whereas ten years later, with a similar death-rate, the relation had fallen to 1.54 per cent. If this decline continues, the population can be maintained only through immigration. But the incentive for such a reinforcement is entirely absent at present, and it is difficult to see from what source it would come. In any case the increase will be very slow, and it seems very doubtful that the expectation according to which Australia ought to have eight million inhabitants within fifty years will be fulfilled.-EMIL JUNG, "Neo-Malthusianismus in Australien," in Zeitschrift für Socialwissenschaft, Heft 8/9. E. M.

Union of Canadian Municipalities. The powers that are obtained by railway, telephone, and other companies, irrespective of the rights of the people, have shown the cities of Canada the necessity of combining for mutual protection. With this object in view, the Union of Canadian Municipalities was formed at Toronto a year ago. Definite objects of the union are declared to be: "the securing of united action for the protection of individual municipalities and municipal interests as a whole against legislative or other encroachments of corporations," the holding of meetings to discuss subjects of interest, and the improvement of legislation upon municipal questions. During the year past union representatives have appeared before the legislatures of the provinces and the Dominion Parliament. Before the latter they presented a memorial protesting against the encroachments of corporations on the municipal control of streets. Modification of pending bills was the result. Other bills before the legislatures have been either modified or thrown out because of the action of the executive committee of the union. Telephone companies were checked in their grasping schemes, and governmental regulations in regard to rates were placed upon them. The union has secured the promise of a general act controlling rates, compelling long service connections, and looking toward a cheap national system. The municipalities are all resisting the demands of private railway and other companies. It is the purpose of the union to assist and encourage this resistance, and, if necessary, to carry every case to the highest courts. Already the power of the union is respected by corporation lawyers and its wishes are sought on bills before they are presented. -Municipal Journal and Engineer, September, 1902. R. M.

British Ownership of Public Utilities.-Municipal ownership and operation of street railways is making rapid progress in the United Kingdom. One-half of all such railways are owned by the various cities and towns. A number of these are leased, but the tendency even here is toward having municipalities operate the roads. One hundred street-railway undertakings, with 689 miles of track, belong to the municipalities. The total number of such undertakings is 213, with 1,307 miles of road. The tramways owned by Birmingham, Edinburgh, Oldham, and twentyfour other towns are leased, but the tendency is toward municipal operation. Birmingham is said to be a good example of profitable leasing, but the corporation has decided to municipalize the service as the leases fall. Edinburgh, with total rentals of $288,300, has a surplus profit of $26,150 after sinking-fund payments are made, but is having trouble with the companies. Tramways are operated as well as owned by forty-one municipalities, and as nearly all own their electric-lighting supply, the introduction of electric traction is proceeding economically. The main objects of this policy are the reduction of fares, symmetrical development of the suburbs, and improvements in the methods of traction. But when the investments required for equipment, construction account, and purchase of private companies have been

liquidated by the operation of sinking funds, the tramway service will be a large source of profit for the relief of the taxpayer. Glasgow, Liverpool, Leeds, Sheffield, Hull, Southampton, and a host of smaller cities all make money out of their roads and have surpluses which are available for the reduction of taxes. Only one town is said to show a deficit in operating.-Bradstreet's, September 20, 1902.

The Need of Accurate and Uniform Social Statistics.—We can give a better account of the progress of the people of New Zealand and of some parts of India than of those of New Jersey and other states of the Union. There have been no well-directed efforts to bring about the necessary reform in the compilation and publication of statistics of the dependent, defective, and delinquent classes. Just in proportion as the facts of pauperism and crime, as the facts of health and well-being or ill-being, are honestly made public, a community will be governed honestly or otherwise. Wherever you find communities unwilling to give publicity to the facts in the case, you, as a rule, find a community which is badly governed, where public-health matters are neglected, where jails and almshouses are in bad condition, and where, of the annual revenue, but a portion is honestly expended for public needs. I believe that Massachusetts owes its commanding position as a well-governed state, and that the city of Boston owes its position as a well-governed municipality, to the fact that from almost time immemorial, commencing with the annual reports of town officers at town meetings, a precise account of the state of public affairs has been required of public officers in charge of public trusts.

Accurate statistics as to the extent of pauperism and crime could be collected through the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Without statistics, accurate and adequate, we do not know whether we are moving forward or backward. The book of Roundtree on Poverty is an illustration of what could be done if only there were a conviction of the social value of statistics.-F. L. HOFFMAN, in New Jersey Conference of Charities and Corrections, 1902.

Child Study in Chicago Schools. Mr. Smedley has published Child-Study Report No. 3, the result of investigations during 1900-1901. Some very careful work was done to determine the height and size of desks best suited to the pupils of different grades and the proportion of adjustable desks required to accommodate the extreme


In the laboratory pupils from over sixty schools have been examined with instruments of precision. Many parents and teachers have brought children to learn the nature and extent of sensory defects. Very bright children have been brought, to determine whether the phenomenal progress is at the expense of their physical wellbeing. Children who had failed to make progress in certain studies were presented to determine what the physical or mental cause of their special deficiencies might be. Children with very defective sight were examined and decision made as to whether the ordinary school or the department of the blind was best suited for them. Similar work was done with those with defective hearing, and dull, nervous, and frail children have been given advice and help.

Boys in the John Worthy (reform) School were examined to test the conclusions of the previous year, and those conclusions were confirmed by the measurements of 247 new subjects. These boys are inferior in all the principal measurements taken, and this inferiority increases with age.

After describing many tests and giving tables of observations, the report concludes with pedagogic suggestions, based on the results of the study.-Report of the Department of Child-Study, by F. W. SMEDLEY, Director.


A Plan for the Study of Man.-Governments spend vast sums of money in charity to defectives, in education of normal persons, and in punishing criminals. This costly effort would be more economically directed if we knew more of the nature of human beings. Dr. MacDonald discusses a proposal to establish laboratories under federal patronage for the investigation of the criminal, pauper, and defective classes. The materials for such study may be found in school children, the inmates of reform schools, in prisons, shops, and wherever sufficient numbers may be examined to give a

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