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4.AR 5/3: HRG.106-116/ PT.5

S. HRG. 106-116, Pt. 5

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION FOR

APPROPRIATIONS FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000 AND
THE FUTURE YEARS DEFENSE PROGRAM

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S. 1059
AUTHORIZING APPROPRIATIONS FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000 FOR MILITARY

ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, FOR MILITARY CON-
STRUCTION, AND FOR DEFENSE ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF
ENERGY, TO PRESCRIBE PERSONNEL STRENGTHS FOR SUCH FISCAL
YEAR FOR THE ARMED FORCES, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

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Printed for the use of the Committee on Armed Services

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S. HRG. 106-116, PT. 5

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION FOR

APPROPRIATIONS FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000 AND
THE FUTURE YEARS DEFENSE PROGRAM

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES

UNITED STATES SENATE

ONE HUNDRED SIXTH CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION

ON

S. 1059
AUTHORIZING APPROPRIATIONS FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000 FOR MILITARY
ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, FOR MILITARY CON-
STRUCTION, AND FOR DEFENSE ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF
ENERGY, TO PRESCRIBE PERSONNEL STRENGTHS FOR SUCH FISCAL
YEAR FOR THE ARMED FORCES, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

PART 5
EMERGING THREATS AND CAPABILITIES

MARCH 5, 16, 22, 23, APRIL 20, 27, 1999

Printed for the use of the Committee on Armed Services

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For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, DC 20402

ISBN 0-16-060429-X

37 304 SU

* 1355

7/00 31150-180 WWLB

COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES

JOHN W WARNER, Virginia, Chairman STROM THURMOND, South Carolina CARL LEVIN, Michigan JOHN MWAIN, Ansona

EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts BOR SMITH, New Hampshire

JEFF BINGAMAN, New Mexico JAMES M INHOFE, Oklahoma

ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia RICK SANTORUM, Pennsylvania

CHARLES S. ROBB, Virginia OLYMPIA J. SNOWE, Maine

JOSEPH I. LIEBERMAN, Connecticut PAT ROBERIS Kansas

MAX CLELAND, Georgia WAYNE ALLARD, Colorado

MARY L LANDRIEU, Louisiana TIM HUTCHINSON, Arkansas

JACK REED, Rhode Island
JEFF SESSIONS Alabama

LES BRORVLEE Staff Director
DAVID S. Lizes Staff Director for the Minority

SUBCOMMITTEE ON EMERGING THREATS AND CAPABILITIES

PAT ROBERTS, Kansas, Chairman BOB SMITH, New Hampshire

JEFF BINGAMAN, New Mexico RICK SANTORUM, Pennsylvania

EDWARD KENNEDY, Massachusetts OLYMPIA J. SNOWE, Maine

ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia JEFF SESSIONS, Alabama

JOSEPH I. LIEBERMAN, Connecticut

CONTENTS

CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF WITNESSES

EMERGING THREATS TO VITAL U.S. NATIONAL SECURITY INTERESTS

MARCH 5, 1999

Page

7

Ellsworth, Hon. Robert F., Former Deputy Secretary of Defense
Boyd, Gen. Charles G., ÚSAF (Ret.), Executive Director, National Security

Study Group
Kirkpatrick, Hon. Jeane J., Former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations
Krepinevich, Dr. Andrew F., Jr., Executive Director, Center for Strategic

and Budgetary Assessments

15
17

21

INFORMATION WARFARE AND CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION

53

MARCH 16, 1999
Marsh, Gen. Robert T., USAF (Ret.), Former Chairman, President's Commis-

sion on Critical Infrastructure Protection
Vatis, Michael A., Deputy Assistant Director and Chief, National Infrastruc-

ture Protection Center, Federal Bureau of Investigation
Money, Arthur L., Senior Civilian Official, Office of the Assistant Secretary
of Defense for Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence

POLICIES AND PROGRAMS TO COMBAT TERRORISM

64

73

125

MARCH 22, 1999
Sheridan, Brian E., Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Spe-

cial Operations and Low Intensity Conflict
Sattler, Brig. Gen. John F., USMC, Deputy Director for Operations (Combat-

ing Terrorism) Joint Staff
Cragin, Charles L., Principal Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Af-

fairs

139

146

THE PROLIFERATION THREAT AND THE PROGRESS AND POLICIES OF THE

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TO COUNTER THIS THREAT

MARCH 23, 1999

173

190
194

Lugar, Hon. Richard G., U.S. Senator from Indiana
Joseph, Ambassador Robert G., Director, Counterproliferation Center, Na-

tional Defense University
Alibek, Ken, M.D., Program Manager, Battelle Memorial Institute
Kay, David A., Ph.D., Director, Center for Counterterrorism, Science Applica-

tions International Corporation
Hecker, Siegfried S., Ph.D., Senior Fellow, Los Alamos National Laboratories
Warner, Edward L., III, Ph.D., Assistant Secretary of Defense, Strategy and

Threat Reduction
Davis, Jay, Ph.D., Director, Defense Threat Reduction Agency
Gottemoeller, Rose E., Ph.D., Director, Office of Nonproliferation and Na-

tional Security, U.S. Department of Energy

197
202

214
228

232

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