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than being shunted off to a low-level office in the ECOSOC bureaucracy, these matters can be made a central part of the operations of the high-level Intergovernmental Body. They belong there because the problems of human settlements are the vital core of the entire human environmental crisis. To exclude them would be to deprive the Intergovernmental Body of the very significant human factor so relevant to environmental concerns. Conversely, those concerned with human settlements would be mistaken to view their problems apart from the total environmental context. The solution is clearly to establish, within the Intergovernmental Body, a high-level Division concerned with the problems of human settlements. The present staff of the Centre would provide a good core for the technical section of the Division.

The proposed Division should place emphasis on providing technical assistance, stimulating and coordinating international planning and community development, and ensuring that financial aid will be available. Above all, the Advisory Committee recognizes that each nation's problems can be solved only on the local level through local effort, but that, there is, at the same time, a need for various kinds of assistance. 2. Functions of the Division of Human Settlements

The primary functions of the proposed Division of Human Settlements would be coordination, research, training, and technical assistance in the human settlements field. The programs needed range from those dealing with the most immediate of problems, such as providing shelter and sanitary facilities for thousands of refugees and migrants, to the long-range needs for new methods of construction, transportation, communications, and waste removal. In some cases, the simple transfer of existing knowledge and low-level technology are required, while in others, the expansion of knowledge and development of complex technology are necessary.

Where programs dealing with the problems are now underway or are likely to be undertaken by an existing agency, the Division would act as a coordinator and disseminator of information. However, in the areas where such work has not been done and does not fall within the purview of existing bodies, the Division would initiate new programs and, in some cases, operate them. In all cases, location within the Intergovernmental Body, would give the research of the Division a fully environmental orientation.

Training stands out as most important because of our commitment to the principle that the peoples of the world should decide their own destinies. The Division would not dictate to nations but would assist them in understanding the problems and evaluating the various available techniques to deal with them. Providing such information and helping people make use of it should be carried out as close to the field

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of operation as possible. The optimum situation would be training centers and on-site technical assistance; the next best would be the regional training centers, once approved by the United Nations but never fully established. The Division would assist in their establishment and provide funds where necessary, although each center should operate autonomously.

The Advisory Committee recommends the expenditure of limited grant funds to serve as "seed money" on the local level. Many developing nations lack the institutional structures that would allow them to accumulate the capital needed for large-scale development. The formation of such structures and financial systems can be aided by an infusion of practical know-how and small-scale initial funds.

Not proposing any massive capital expenditure program is not only pragmatic but also responsible. Each country must look to its own resources for its primary push toward development. We recommend that the development of housing and communities be viewed not as a financial burden but as an economic opportunity to multiply the effect of capital investments. For example, wealthy land-owners might be urged to convert their lands into liquid capital, which could then be invested in the local market. In addition, if the proper institutions are created and the economic opportunity is provided, then foreign investment of capital is a distinct possibility. However, to guide its own destiny, each nation ultimately must rely upon its own resources.

Population growth is a matter of the greatest importance in discussions of human settlements and the environment. The minimal recommendation which we make is to undertake studies of the impact of population growth, to develop new means of contraception, and to disseminate all available information to as many persons as possible. Once again, each nation must decide what its own population policy ought to be and how to implement it, i.e., by inducements or by sanctions, and how much free choice should be granted individuals. The Division should help nations identify the relationship between various rates of population growth, the quality of life for all, and the values of ecologically sound development. It ought to help in the preparation of world-wide studies of population growth impact. Through these functions, it should ensure that freedom of choice is informed choice.

3. The Human Settlements Fund

The recommendation of a relatively small United Nations Voluntary Fund for the Environment and a similarly limited budget for the Division of Human Settlements reflect the realization that the development of both adequate administration and worthwhile programs takes time. In addition, of course, no fund of this size can be expected to deal with the capital needs of any full-scale undertaking. The direction of fund monies will be into the areas of technical assistance, training, and research. 4. Development Assistance Agencies Include Settlement Costs

Providing for the infrastructure costs of new settlements as a part of a total development plan is probably the best way to assist in their

a development. Too often, nations opt for the simple, quick route of constructing manufacturing plants while neglecting to consider the human settlements aspects of rapid industrialization. In the past, the international development assistance agencies have reinforced this shortsightedness through their own lending policies. Our proposal looks toward a correction of this myopia. 5. Refugee Resettlement

Within the past decade, millions of refugees have been created by the military and political actions of many nations. The immediate care and long-range resettlement of these persons are among the greatest human problems on the international scene; the destructive effect on the environment, on both the people and the land, has been enormous. So long as the nations of the world must persist in their ritual of war and destruction, they must come to accept the resettling of the refugees as part of the cost of war. 6. Declaration on Human Rights

Recognition of the fundamental right of man to a decent home in a suitable living environment should move the nations of the world to work toward this goal. The fulfillment of man's capabilities as a physical, intellectual and moral being requires a decent home or context within which to live and grow. 7. Transportation

In the developed nations, the automobile has contributed significantly to the welfare and pleasure of millions of people. It has become one of the most sought-after consumer items of all times. Unfortunately, however, it is also a major source of air pollution, and the highways built for it have caused extensive environmental damage. Dependence on the auto has also caused massive traffic problems and degraded the quality of urban life. The automobile manufacturers, who are mainly located in the United States, Italy, Germany, France, Great Britain, and Japan have reaped large profits from the sale of vehicles all over the world. It seems equitable, therefore, that these nations assume responsibility for developing a pollution-free auto and for developing other modes of transportation equally ingenious but more ecologically sound and efficient than the present automobile. B. Recommendations—National

In preparation for proposal of actions to be taken by ourselves and other nations, individually and collectively, we must examine the American experience with human settlements. The “frontiersman” concept provides a useful vehicle for seeing both the positive and negative aspects of the past and present. It conjures up images of strong, free individuals setting forth to seek a new life on the apparently limitless lands of the frontier. The conquest of natural elements and, where necessary, human ones was viewed as the ultimate challenge to man; of course, on a more practical level it was viewed as the only way to survive, let alone, prosper. While individual freedoms, social mobility, and material abundance for some people did result, so did other facts which cannot be neglected. The "limitless” natural resources, in particular, the land itself, were often despoiled and depleted; many persons were subjected to economic and cultural oppression; and the qualitative aspects of human existence were often discounted in favor of the quantifiable ones.

Regardless of the initial values of the "frontiersman" approach it increasingly became a problem as the resources diminished, the population grew and the industrial age asserted itself. To some extent the cities which have grown up in America, unlike the older cities of Europe, reflect either the organic human scale of the Feudal period nor the grace and beauty of the Renaissance and Empire periods, but rather the model of the industrial machine. Essentially, our cities are like machines: they were built for the productive process and have become more machine-like as the processes were refined.

Feeding this type of development has been a lack of public planning, the prevalence of private land speculation, and the influence of special interests. The lack of public planning of the use of land has led to massive public expenditures that have benefited the few at the cost to the many. The role of special interests as well as the lack of public planning have resulted in the location of businesses and, subsequently, larger settlements in areas where the carrying capacity of the air and water have since been seriously taxed. Had the environmental impact been anticipated, much damage could have been avoided.

Another major phenomenon of the American development process has been the heavy emphasis on economic concerns—a fact which has been made manifest in many of our human settlements. For example, while major attention was directed at the construction of industrial plants all too often inadequate resources were channeled into the construction of decent homes for the workers. Due to the drive for economic efficiency and greater food production, huge agricultural combines developed but, unfortunately, in only few instances did the individual small farmer and his family benefit. The industrial growth of the cities created wealth and vast employment opportunities but did not always provide the new residents with the opportunity to live in a decent environment. Many of our nations' minority groups have experienced the full impact of the process. The clearest example of the conflict between the national concern with economic growth and other human values has been in our relations with the American Indian nations; their cultural values of respect for all living creatures, the inherent holiness of the land, and the non-acquisition of material goods were seldom considered when they stood in the path of economic development.

As Americans, however, we can be proud of much of our national development, not only of our obvious material wealth but of our respect for freedom and participation, both of which have been adhered to for the most part. Americans have been committed to the ideal that all individuals should have freedom of choice in all areas of life and the concommitant ideal that everyone should be able to participate in public decisionmaking.

Thus, much of what we disparagingly call the "ticky-tacky” parts of surburbia grew out of the postwar demands of the American citizenconsumer; though it was often praised by the professional planners of those days. In recent years, refinements in public decisionmaking have led to the concept of neighborhood-citizen participation in the city-planning process. These approaches inspire hope. The challenge is to continue to strengthen processes that reflect a dynamic interplay between the demands of professional planning, ecological awareness, and individual free choice. Perhaps we should conclude that as Americans we still hold to the vision of a just society for all and trust that our future will manifest it more fully than our past. 1. The Human Environment

Comprehensive environmental development must include not only man's physical habitat but also the opportunity for self-development and the achievement of a sense of well-being. Man strives toward fulfillment and perfection while also seeking immediate comfort and security. Proper planning and implementation processes must take these characteristics into consideration. 2. Socioeconomic Change

The socioeconomic structure affects every person's health, sense of well-being, and ultimate ability to control his destiny. Aside from the obvious fact of the least fortunate suffering most from physical environmental degradation, there are psychic realities of alienation,

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