Pesticide Risk Assessment in Rice Paddies: Theory and Practice
Rice is cultivated throughout the world under submerged conditions. The high water requirements and the heavy pesticide load used in rice paddies worldwide have resulted in contamination of associated surface water, such as streams, ditches, rivers and lakes. The uniform risk assessment approach which has been developed for other crops is not applicable to rice paddies, because of the specific conditions applied to rice cultivation.
Pesticide Risk Assessment in Rice Paddies: Theory and Practice fills the gap in information on this subject. Written by experts, this book summarizes the methods used for pesticide risk assessment in rice paddies, the limitations and problems encountered and future developments. It also examines the various agronomic, pesticide application and risk assessment approaches used in different rice cultivated zones in Asia, America and Europe and is an essential reference for those working in this area.
* The only up-to-date book dealing with pesticide risk assessment in the flooded conditions of rice paddies
* Offers guidelines on the use and application of existing modeling tools, specific for rice cultivation
* Presents the differences and similarities in rice cropping systems and how these relate to pesticide risk assessment
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Chapter 4 Water Resource Contamination in Italian Paddy Areas
Chapter 5 Ecotoxicology of Rice Pesticides
The LowerTier Analysis
A European Perspective
A Japanese Perspective
An American Perspective
Chapter 10 SocioEconomic and Environmental CostBenefit Analysis of Rice Cultivation
Colour Plate Section
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active substances adsorption agricultural agronomic aquatic calculated Capri chemical coefficient compartment concentrations in paddy contamination day1 degradation rate developed dissipation drainage canals drift ecological ecosystems ecotoxicological effects EFSA environment equation European evaluation EWSD factors fate and transport Ferrero flooded groundwater herbicides higher tier Inao input irrigation Italy Japan Karpouzas lake Kasumigaura leaching lysimeter Med-Rice mefenacet Mississippi Alluvial Plain molinate monitoring non-target OECD paddy field paddy soil paddy water parameterization parameters PECs period pesticide application pesticide concentrations pesticide fate pesticide losses pesticide registration pesticide runoff post-emergence potential propanil rainfall receiving water regulatory relevant residues rice cultivation rice fields rice paddies rice pesticides rice production RICEWQ RICEWQ model risk assessment risk management river basin RIVWQ scenarios scientific sediment seeding simulated soil layer species studies surface water SW bodies SWAGW Tarazona tion toxicity Tromello values VMIX water bodies water management watershed weeds
Page 34 - In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States according to their capabilities. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.
Page 47 - The process, distinct from risk assessment, of weighing policy alternatives, in consultation with all interested parties, considering risk assessment and other factors relevant for the health protection of consumers and for the promotion of fair trade practices, and, if needed, selecting appropriate prevention and control options.
Page 43 - Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for the Community action in the field of water policy...
Page 58 - Behavioral decision theory and environmental risk management: assessment and resolution of four 'survival' dilemmas', Acta Psychologica, Vol.
Page 66 - FOCUS, 2001. FOCUS Surface Water Scenarios in the EU Evaluation Process under 91/414/EEC. Report of the FOCUS Working Group on Surface Water Scenarios, EC Document Reference SANCO/4802/2001-rev.l.
Page 88 - Ruepert C. 1997. Ecotoxicology and pesticides in tropical aquatic ecosystems of Central America. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:41-51.
Page 89 - Edwards, CA, 2004. Ring-testing and field-validation of a Terrestrial Model Ecosystem (TME) - an instrument for testing potentially harmful substances: conceptual approach and study design. Ecotoxicology 13, 9-28.
Page 235 - FOrum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe" (FOCUS) was established in 1992.
Page 90 - Costs," op. cit. note 11; Philippines from PL Pingali et al., "The Impact of Pesticides on Farmer Health: A Medical and Economic Analysis in the Philippines,