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3. Program Justification:
It is essential to have a productive, mission-oriented radionuclide research program of broad scope in order to support the Environmental Radiation Standards setting function of the Environmental Protection Agency with basic scientific information which can provide an indication of the types of effects to be expected from and the association with various levels of radionuclides in the environment. 4. Description:
Attempts to attain these objectives will be pursued primarily through the definition of the dose-effect relationships of low-levels of environmental radionuclides in a variety of animal species with long-term observation of exposed animals for radiation-induced teratogenesis, carcinogenesis, and mutagenesis. 5. Results/Products:
The results of this program element will be a series of reports on the biological and physico-chemical effects of specific environmental radionuclides on various stages of the ecosystem. Internally, these reports will be relayed to the Division of Criteria and Standards to assist in the formulation or revision of Radiation standards. Externally, reports will be made to the scientific community at large through publication of the experimental results in the open literature. 6. Supporting Contracts:
In order to supplement the in-house capabilities of this program element, the following supporting contracts are required with:
a. Hazelton Laboratories for the clinical laboratory support, caretaking, and maintenance of experimental animal colonies.
b. Environmental Science Associates for radiation dose calculations to the lungs due to inhomogeneous respiratory deposition of radioactive particles.
c. University of Rochester Atomic Energy Project for the temporary maintenance of experimental equipment and animals during the phase-out and transfer of this project.
d. Biostatistical services for the evaluation of experimental designs and
interpretation of results.
a. Small animal aerosol exposure chamber.
1. Alpha spectrometer. 8. Intermedia Relationships:
The efforts of this program element would require coordination with, and provide information of value to the Air Pollution Control Office for krypton, tritium, plutonium, and the transuranic elements and the Water Quality Office for tritium, strontium, plutonium, and the transuranic elements. Additional intra-office interfacing with the Divisions of Surveillance and Inspection, Technology and Assessment, and Criteria and Standards. 9. Coordination: Extramural relationships of this program element include:
(1) AEC—Division of Biology and Medicine
PROGRAM ELEMENT No.: 610203
PROGRAM PLANNING NARRATIVE 1. Program Element Title: Experimental Electromagnetic Radiation Studies.
Prepared by: David E. Janes; 4/30/71. 2. Objectives:
The principal objectives of this program are to define the biological effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation and provide the scientific bases for formulating, evaluating, and supporting population exposure standards. The de tailed objectives are: (1) to determine if there are genetic effects from exposure to non-ionizing radiation, (2) to determine and describe the effects of radiation on the central nervous system and glands controlling physiological integration, (3) to determine the interactions between electromagnetic fields and molecular systems that could lead to genetic and central nervous system effects, (4) to define the physical and biological parameters that determine energy absorption and hence biological hazard in the near an far field of electromagnetic radiators, (5) to examine whether data from high dose radiation studies, ionizing and nonionizing, can be used to predict moderate or low dose effects, (6) to determine if there are cumulative effects and if there is an irreversible component to nonionizing radiation effects, and (7) to determine whether certain subpopulations (e.g., developing fetus, aged, genetic variants) are more radiation sensitive than the normal adult. 3. Program Justification:
The entire population is exposed to electromagnetic radiation from the nuclear industry, radar, television, and communications systems. The number of these sources will continue to increase. The consequences of underestimating the effects of long-term exposure are serious, especially if there are genetic effects. Acute ionizing radiation effects are established, but more knowledge is needed on low level dose effects for continuing reevaluation of standards. Though microwaves and radiowa ves at thermal intensities are known to cause adverse biological effects, no standard exists for the exposure of the general population to non-ionizing radiation. Before EPA can establish and evaluate population exposure standards, the extent and importance of molecular, biochemical, genetic, functional, and behavioral changes reported at low intensities must be determined. 4. Description:
The laboratory effort in FY 72 will be to identify the interactions between electromagnetic fields and molecular systems that lead to genetic and neurophysio logical effects and to investigate directly the existence of genetic and behavioral effects. Molecular level effects will be explored, initially at 2.45 GHz in solutions of proteins, bovine serum albumin and ribonuclease, and nucleic acids both during and after irradiation. Transient and persistent changes in conformation and in biological activity will be measured using the techniques of absorption spectroscopy, optical rotation, chromatography, gel filtration, and electrophoresis. Genetic effects, e.g., mutations, chromosome aberrations, and changes in the biological activity of DNA, resulting from irradiation with both continuous and pulsed 2.54 GHz microwaves will be examined with standard techniques in bacterial and maminalian systems, initially E. Coli and Chinese hamsters. Behavioral and neurophysiological effects will be examined in small primates, dogs, and rodents at 0.4 and 2.45 GHz; dependent variables will include EEG changes and changes in performance, learning, memory, and other behavioral and physiological indices. Contracts will be used to establish an information clearing house to identify current work in progress and problem areas, to extend the frequency capability of the laboratory to 5.5 and 10 GHz in a study of low level irradiation on physiological processes, and to provide for theoretical investigations and calculations of initial energy deposition. Grants will be used to fund basic and applied studies which complement and supplement intramural research activities. 5. Results/Products:
This program will provide the scientific bases and competence to determine the biological effects of environmental levels of electromagnetic radiation which are needed to formulate, evaluate, and support standards. Information will be communicated to other program elements through intramural reports and consultation and to the scientific community through publication. Results will be
mcorporated into programs to predict low dose effects, the existence of irreversible non-ionizing radiation effects, and to determine the biological characteristics that make a population sensitive to radiation. 6. Supporting Contracts:
Supporting contracts will be negotiated in five areas: to provide an information learing house, to extend the frequency capability of the laboratory, to obtain cheoretical solution to the sites of initial energy distribution in specific geometries of biological interest, and to provide for clinical analyses and computer servces. 7. Special Facilities/ Equipment:
The necessary special facilities are a current scientific library and service, computer and programming services, electronic and machine shop services, and technical publication services. The necessary equipment includes a Cary 61 spectropolarimeter, wide frequency range microwave source with amplifiers and associated equipment, -60 C. deep freeze unit, special equipment to record responses to stimuli by the animals, e.g., magnetic tape equipment with medical amplifiers, 7-channel FM instrumentation recorder, an EEG polygraph, and behavioral control equipment. 8. Intermedia Relationships:
None at the present stage of development of the program. 9. Coordination:
Coordination with other interested agencies is being developed, particularly with DHEW and various laboratories of the Department of Defense such as the School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks AFB, Texas; Walter Reed Institute of Research; and Naval Aerospace Medical Center, Pensacola, Florida.
PROGRAM ELEMENT No.: 61024
PROGRAM PLANNING NARRATIVE
1. Program Element Title: Multiple Environmental Stress Studies
Prepared By: C. D. Lytle; 4/28/71 2. Objectives:
The object of multiple environmental stress studies is to investigate possible synergistic or additive effects of environmental agents on the effects of radiation. These environmental agents including viruses, metals such as methyl mercury and cadmium, such chemicals as DDT and NTA, and various physical agents were chosen according to their occurrences in man and his environment and the likelihood of their interacting with radiation effects. 3. Program Justification:
Environmental pollutants are being released into the environs at increasing rates. Enhancement or mitigation by these agents of radiation effects must be determined for consideration in the establishment or modification of radiation protection guides and standards. 4. Description:
Within the multiple environmental stress studies program, projects have been developed to inyestigate:
(1) The role of viruses in radiation caused tumors using tissue culture techniques with mammalian (when appropriate, human) cells and simian or human viruses. Screening for tumor viruses in cats is done electron microscopically.
(2) Synergistic effects of alpha radiation and tobacco smoke to be determined by comparing the incidence of cancer in cigarette smoking rats, nonsmoking rats, and rats smoking cigarettes containing polonium-210.
(3) Effects of environmental agents, such as methyl mercury, cadmium, lead, DDT, NTA, and elevated temperature on radiation responses of hamsters and rats, including tumorigenesis, teratogenesis, genetic changes, life shortening, and other physiological changes. An aquatic animal (salamander or fish) will be used in similar preliminary studies.
(4) Effect of above environmental agents on the metabolism of selected radionuclides, for example, tritium.
The experimental results will constitute a bank of information on the synergistic or additive nature of the action of environmental agents on radiation effects. Biological, chemical, and physical agents of importance to radiation response will have priority, with emphasis on biological endpoints of value in establishing radiation protection guides and standards.
The results will be reported at scientific meetings and in the scientific literature. Particular attention will be given to disseminating the information to coordinating organizations and other offices of EPA. 6. Supporting Contracts: None. 7. Special Facilities/ Equipment:
(1) 3375 Packard Liquid Scintilation Unit.
(6) Negative pressure aquaria with temperature control. 8. Intermedia Relationships:
Continuous liaison will be maintained with the Offices of Water Quality, Air Pollution, and Pesticides to identify and appreciate new environmental pollutants and their importance, especially as related to co-insult with radiation.
Liaison with the National Institutes of Health and the Bureau of Radiological Health of DHEW and the Atomic Energy Commission will be maintained and expanded. 9. Coordination:
The research program will be coordinated with similar or related programs in the other EPA offices, DHEW, and AEC.
PROGRAM ELEMENT No. 610205
PROGRAM PLANNING NARRATIVE 1. Program Element Title: AEC Radiation Effects Program
Prepared By: A. A. Moghissi ; 4-12–71 2. Objectives:
To conduct laboratory and field investigations for determination of the potential hazard to humans and the environment resulting from nuclear testing activities 3. Program Justification:
Research studies conducted under this project serve to provide data of current interest to the AEC nuclear testing program at the Nevada Test Site. The establishment of testing criteria and radiation protection standards require the understanding of the behavior of selected radionuclides in man's food chain and in his environment. The environmental impact of certain long-lived radionuclides, such as plutonium, requires particular attention as the dose commitment assumes significant importance as the short-lived species become less prevalent. 4. Description:
The potential hazard from selected radionuclides such as might be released to the environment from nuclear sources, for example, testing activities and power reactors are investigated in the laboratory and in the field. Radionuclide metabolism in beef and dairy animals and in plants, soil-plant relationships, transport are included in this project.
The laboratory greenhouse facilities, microplots, and farm and dairy facilities are used in this project. The various components of man's food chain are considered during this study as well as the transport, distribution and exchange within and between these components.
The principal pathway considered is the air-forage-cow-milk chain for radionuclides of interest.
Results provide data for use by the Test Evaluation Panel in its considerations of the safety of planned nuclear tests.
The results accumulated from these studies will also provide input into the review of radiation protection standards. In addition, radioactivity prediction models are developed, e.g., the radioiodine prediction model for field events. Current indications are that FY-72 research emphasis will be directed at determining the physical, chemical, and biological parameters of environmental plutomium. 6. Supporting Contracts:
A services contract with a biostatistician has been negotiated for evaluation of the experimental designs and the statistical analysis of experimental data. Memorandum of Agreement with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. 7. Special Facilities/Equipment:
a. A multi-parameter system is required for a spectroscopic analysis of environmental radionuclide levels in animal tissues and other samples subjected to neutron activation.
b. A differential thermal analyzer is required for the characterization of various soil types and the study of binding properties of various radionuclides to the soil.
C. An alpha spectrometer is required to measure the alpha activity in the proposed tissue distribution studies. 8. Intermedia Relationships:
Results will have concurrent application to air pollution, water pollution, and radiation effects programs. 9. Coordination: AEC/Nevada Operations Office 10. Unresowed Policy Issues: None.
1. Program Element Code Number--110201
Program Coordinator--Dr. Vaun Newill 3. Program Justification:
CHESS carries out the purpose of Section 103 (f) (1) of the Clean Air Act related to the acceleration of research into the effects of pollution. The purpose of all air pollution control activities is to ameliorate the detrimental effects of the pollution, the most significant such effects being on human health. Therefore, the ultimate measure of the effectiveness of air pollution control programs is the improvement of the health status of human populations with improvements in air quality. CHESS will quantify these improvements in human health as the pollution control programs achieve improvements in air quality. At the same time, knowledge is required to allow the setting of standards or for the revision of current standards; CHESS will contribute to the increased knowledge required on human health effects resulting from air pollutants or total pollutant burdens, whether incurred through the air route or other environmental pathways. 4. Objectives:
To appraise the effectiveness of environmental standards in protecting human health from the insults of air pollutants and other ubiquitous environmental contaminants and to quantitate human pollutant burdens. To achieve the main objective stated, the following secondary objectives will have to be achieved: To develop additional, more sensitive, health indicators; to expand coverage to photochemical oxidant exposures by FY 1972. 5. Scope:
CHESS currently covers only four (particulate, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and photochemical oxidants) of the pollutants covered by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. For carbon monoxide there is no indication yet that it is possible to assess its effects in human populations through epidemiologic studies; there are no health effects as such that can be related to hydrocarbons. Trace metals are being studied insofar as they can be traced through all environmental