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measure the intensity of the spectral radiance in the 3- to 7-micron range directed outward from the earth's surface. Water vapor profile data were to be the primary product obtained. However, ice accretion on the detector in orbit precluded obtaining water vapor measurements, but data for differentiating between ice and water clouds were obtained. The instrument ceased operation with failure of the chopper drive on June 7, 1970. The Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) Spectrometer experiment determines the spectral distribution of atmospheric ozone. The BUV measures the backscattered radiation at 14 different wavelengths in the spectral region from 2500å to 3400å during those nights when the atmosphere is illuminated by the full moon. Such observations can provide information about the total ozone in a vertical column at night. For Nimbus E, a payload of seven experiments has been selected; these include four meteorology experiments, one earth resources experiment, one communications experiment, and one reference mapper.

An improved 13-channel Selective Chopper Radiometer (SCR) will measure the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere up to 50 kilometers and will make supporting observations of water vapor distribution and cloud

day. This instrument will provide supporting data for other experiments. The high-resolution Surface Composition Mapping Radiometer (SCMR) will measure the modification of the thermal emission by reststrahlen or residual rays of igneous rock in two spectral regions to determine the composition of the earth's surface. The Real-time Data Relay (RDR) experiment will utilize S-band radio frequencies, establishing a two-way real-time data relay link between Nimbus E and ATS F to demonstrate the feasibility of eliminating large onboard storage devices for future spacecraft, the feasibility of a relay satellite command link, and the feasibility of earth-orbiting satellite-tracking from synchronous satellites. Thirty-three proposals have been received for Nimbus F. These have been evaluated, and a tentative payload of 12 experiments has been selected. A final flight payload will be selected in the near future, based on studies of the tentative payload in various combinations of sensors. SPACECRAFT TECHNOLOGY AND ASSOCIATED GROUND EQUIPMENT

NASA, in coordination with Commerce and Defense, has a major program underway to develop and build the prototype ground station to acquire and display data from the VHRR and the SMS which will be flown in 1972. Considerable emphasis is placed on development of a suitable display device. Electrolytic recorders now in common use are incapable of displaying the high quality data with adequate fidelity. The majority of these recorders also are not designed for efficient operation at the scan rate of the VHRR. The Navy has developed a high quality APT photorecorder to replace the electrolytic APT recorder presently in use. This recorder was designed to be compatible with the scanning radiometer (SR) being flown on ITOS-1 and the NOAA satellites and has suc. cessfully passed a shipboard operational evaluation.

Other NASA efforts included in this category for funding of supporting research are directed toward the improvement of station-keeping characteristics of spacecraft. Studies of large solar-array concepts and configurations, power-conditioning components, and nickel-cadmium cells will continue. Further efforts are directed toward improved data compression and pattern recognition techniques. SATELLITE DATA ANALYSIS AND APPLICATIONS

These projects are directed generally toward solving mission-oriented problems and are designed

cover.

The Infrared Temperature Profile Radiometer (ITPR) will provide improved spatial resolution measurements of the vertical-temperature profile and of the water vapor in the troposphere. The Microwave Spectrometer (MWS) will use passive microwave techniques to measure atmospheric temperature at three levels between 0 and 18 kilometers and will measure liquid water and water vapor in the troposphere. The Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) will map globally and continuously the thermal radiation emitted by the earth's surface and by the atmosphere at a wavelength of approximately 1.55 centimeters. The data are expected to provide information such as differentiation of ice and water clouds, thickness and liquid water content of clouds, areas of precipitation, and morphology of ice cover. The two-channel Temperature-Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR), similar to that flown on Nimbus 4, will produce high-resolution infrared cloud-cover pictures at night and comparable visible radiation data during the

to insure maximum utilization of data acquired by space vehicles. Supporting research in this funding category is conducted by Commerce, Defense, and NASA.

Research by the Department of Defense is primarily directed toward development of techniques for the utilization of satellite data to improve meteorological services. This research, performed principally by the Navy's Project FAMOS—Fleet Applications of Meteorological Observations from Satellites—and by Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, is conducted in areas and toward goals as follows:

The development of methods for integrating satellite data into the analysis and forecasting procedures of the various weather service elements, and exploratory development in the area of satellite input to numerical analysis and prediction systems. The development of techniques for disseminating satellite products to users in a format compatible with user requirements. The development of new operational uses and techniques for applying direct readout data to analysis and forecast problems. The development of techniques to optimize the output of ground equipment such as compensating for the deterioration of the space systems, expanding direct readout SR output to a more useful size, and controlling the ground processing of DRSR to permit the detection of radi. ometric temperatures from the photographic output. The development of techniques to detect severe weather from satellite data.

The development of low-level wind analysis techniques from satellite data and the use of satellite data in preparing automated three-dimensional nephanalyses on a global basis. In NOAA's research program, major effort in FY 72 will continue on deriving and using quantitative information obtained by satellites. Operational procedures for deriving winds from timelapse cloud motion observations will be further developed and tested in preparation for the GOES satellite system to be established in late fiscal

year 1972. Continued study and evaluation of methods for incorporating satellite sounding data in numerical weather prediction will receive high priority. Techniques to apply observations from the scanning radiometer to environmental services, including mapping of cloud tops and sea-surface temper. ature, are being steadily refined. New projects to be undertaken in 1972 will emphasize the application of satellite technology to improved services and support of marine programs, hydrology, and space disturbances.

NASA's objectives in Satellite Data Analysis and Applications are (1) to analyze and interpret data acquired from experiments flown on meteorological satellites, to assess the validity of the different sensing techniques, and to increase our understanding of the Earth-atmosphere system; (2) to optimize the storage media and the on-board data processing systems to provide an efficient match with the volume of data to be processed, stored, and transmitted, and the delineation and design of the associated ground system; and (3) to design and develop real-time global data acquisition and processing systems in support of the Global Atmospheric Research Program.

Total

Spacecraft technology and associ

ated ground
equipment

Satellite data analysis and applications

FY 72

FY 71

FY 72

FY 71

FY 72

FY 71

FY 72

1,075

1,143 (390)

2,212 (390)

1,025
(350)

50
200

100 13,965

2,100
(350)

50
200

100 45, 321

200

190 12,395

200

190 46,508

4,746

855

510

AGENCY SUPPORTING RESEARCH COSTS FOR WEATHER SATELLITE PROGRAM, BY FUNCTION

Satellite flight

projects

Satellite instruments

and experiments

FY 71

FY 72

FY 71

1,069

Commerce..
Defense.

Army
Navy

Air Force NASA

37,030

36,10

6,228

49,110

47,771

Total..
37,030 36,100 7,297

5,821

855 510 3,928 5,340 ' in previous plans, NASA Satellite Data Analysis and Applications cost: were included in Satellite Flight Projects.

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Weather Satellites

1970-1972

Satellite

Purpose

Launch Date

Orbit

ITOS 1

R/O

1/23/70

Sun Synch. 790 n. mi.

Nimbus 4

R

4/ 8/70

Sun Synch. 600 n. mi.

NOAA 1

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12/11/70

Sun Synch. 790 n. mi.

ITOS B

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Instruments and Functions

2 AVCS, 2 APT, 2 SR; OMNI, SPM.

IDCS, THIR; IRIS, SIRS, SCR, FWS; IRLS;
BUV, MUSE.

2 AVCS, 2 APT, 2 SR; OMNI, SPM.

2 AVCS, 2 APT, 2 SR; OMNI, SPM.

2 SR, 2 VHRR; 2 VTPR; OMNI, SPM.

VISSR; DCDR.

THIR, ESMR; ITPR, SCR, MWS; RDR; SCMR.

Purpose:

* -Launched as required.

R--Research

0--Operational
R/O-Operational prototype

Instruments and functions:

AVCS - Advanced Vidicon Camera System (weather satellite)
APT --Automatic Picture Transmission
BUV -Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectrometer
DCDR Data Collection and Data Relay
ESMR -Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer
FWS -Filter Wedge Spectrometer
IDCS - Image Dissector Camera System
IRIS -Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer
IRLS -Interrogation, Recording, and Location System
ITPR -Infrared Temperature Profile (multichannel) Radiometer
MUSE - Monitor of Ultraviolet Solar Energy

MWS - Microwave Spectrometer
OMNI --Omnidirectional Radiometers
RDR Realtime Data Relay
SCMR Surface Composition Mapping Radiometer
SCR -Selective Chopper Radiometer
SIRS - Satellite Infrared Spectrometer
SPM Solar Proton Monitor
SR -Scanning Radiometer
THIR -Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer
VHRR -Very High Resolution Radiometer
VISSR_Visual and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer
VTPR - Vertical Temperature Profile Radiometer

Publications

The Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research has either prepared, or is in the process of preparing, a series of publications covering the broad spectrum of meteorological programs in the Federal Government. The following is a list of these publications and their status: National East Coast Winter Storms Operations Plan (Revised Annually) National Hurricane Operations Plan (Revised Annually) National Severe Local Storms Operations Plan (Revised Annually) Report of the National Committee for Clear Air Turbulence (December 1966) Federal Plan for a National Fire-Weather Service (March 1967) Mesometeorological Research and Development Prospectus (March 1967) Implementation Plan for the ESSA/USAF JointUse Computer Facility at Asheville, N.C. (May 1967) Federal Plan for Marine Meteorological Services (May 1968) Planning Guidelines for a Federal Aviation Meteorological Service (August 1968) The Joint Selection Panel Report on the ESSA/

USAF Joint-Use Computer Facility at Asheville, N.C. (January 1969) Catalog of U.S. Government Meteorological Research and Test Facilities (September 1969) Report on Hurricane Weather Reconnaissance (September 1969) Federal Plan for Clear Air Turbulence (November 1969) Federal Plan for Weather Radars and Remote Displays (December 1969) Federal Plan for Cooperative Backup Among Operational Processing Centers (August 1970) Computer Plan for Operational Forecasting and Atmospheric Modeling Research (September 1970) Federal Plan for Upper Air Observations Above 30 Kilometers (October 1970) Federal Plan for Air Pollution Control Meteorological Service (January 1971) Federal Plan for a National Agricultural Weather Service (January 1971) National Plan for Rocketsonde Support for Special Events (January 1971) Federal Plan for Climatological Services (Under Development) Federal Plan for Meteorological Data from Satellites (Under Development) Federal Plan on Applied Mesometeorological Research and Development (Under Development)

64-737 0 - 72 - pt. 2 ---16

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