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distributions of pollutants which are needed to permit development of analytical models, to predict pollution levels, and to establish pollution controls.

The Department of Commerce is planning to procure, install and test at Mauna Loa a prototype of a LIDAR equipment for measuring the vertical distribution of particulates in the atmosphere and to conduct research to refine observing techniques.

OTHER SPECIALIZED METEOROLOGICAL
SERVICES
OPERATIONAL PROGRAM

Because these Specialized Meteorological Services support relatively stable on-going programs, annual changes are usually small. In FY 72, however, the Department of Defense is planning a decrease in its programs because of overall military retrenchments. SUPPORTING RESEARCH PROGRAM

The AEC conducts research to improve the meteorological support provided for nuclear detonations, tests, and reactor and nuclear rocket experi

ments. As new applications of nuclear materials are developed, new variations in testing conditions arise; thus, further development and refinement of the meteorological support become necessary. This support consists of evaluation and prediction of air trajectories, diffusion, deposition, and washout by precipitation of nuclear materials which might inadvertently be released from test sites. The supporting research consists of development of the use of a medium-scale wind-reporting network to serve as input to a computer model which automatically prints flow patterns, trajectories, and normalized concentration contours from an assumed source; determination of the aerodynamic effect of buildings upon the diffusion rate of effluents emanating from the structure; study of the fumigation of a controlled elevated source and the resulting downwind concentrations near the gound; study of atmospheric diffusion rates during calm or near-calm conditions; study of the effect of wind direction meandering upon concentrations averaged over a 12- to 24-hour period: and application of all this knowledge on an operational prediction basis.

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Total

12,088

11,216

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241 1,028 1,049 1, 201 1,252 5,847 6,170
(15)

[45] [45] 11821 1182)
(400) (3,285) (3,276) (4,484) (4,145) (14,926) (13,947)

131 124 1,154 970
233 357 349 975 950*

2,896 2,832
75 75 75

75
167 2,928 2,927

2,541 2,300 10,039 9,374
762
696

762 696
2
2
2
6
6
24

24
(851)

(706) (733) (505) (510) (3,734) (3,731)
13° 6
69 20° 20* 1, 126 1,224

164

164
838 700 727 485 490 2, 444 2,343•

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Total...

8,084

7,554

3,800

3,973

1.567

1,509

5,021

5,060

6,241

5,958

24,713

24,054

[ ] indicates personnel funded by other agencies.

*Indicates man-years of effort, Functions are performed as part time tasks by personnel assigned to other primary duties. For Coast Guard,
includes 40 percent of personnel required to man ships in the Ocean Station Vessel (OSV) program, except for vessels serving Ocean Station HO-
TEL, for which the apportionment to meteorological services is 100 percent.

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AEC
Commerce
Defense

Army
Navy

Air Force
EPA
ICSC
NASA
Transportation

Coast Guard
FAA..

837 794

17 16

120
113 735

697

1,709 1,620 53,426 56.940 34.759 39. 795 8,519 8,916 17,817 18.050 21,210 23, 208 135,731 146,909 (18,764) (70,385) (23,626) (24,167) (27,169) (23,059) (35,497) (33,632) (53,292) (50,132) (218, 348) (201,375) 9,468 8,160

200 200 1,307 1, 461 10,975 9,821 10,710 8,605

8,056 7,565 3,526 4,166 3,305 3,224 14,687 14,654 40,284 38.214 58,586 53,620 15,570 16,602 23,643 18,893 31,992 30,208 37,298 34,017 167,089 153, 340

720 720

720 14

14 392 377 562 601 53 54 57 66 255 274 1.319 1,372 (14,357) (15,468) (60) (60) (18,005) (19,065) (9,980) (10,460) (9,706) (9,983) (52,108) (55,036) 10,000 11.250 60 60 330 110

180

184 149 149 10,719 11,753 4,357 4,218 17,675 18,955 9,800 10,276 9,557 9,834

41,389 43,283

720

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520

350

Agriculture
AEC
Commerce
Defense

Army
Navy

Air Force
EPA
NASA
Transportation

FAA

310 335 600 650 24 28

934 1,013 436 378 348 302 87 76

871 756 1,972 2,130 416 422 2.097 2,129 63 63 1,293 1, 308 220 220 6,061

6,272 (3,788) (3,791) (1,861) (1,741) (1,275) (1,197) (223) (522) (2.365 ) (6,071) (4,080 ) (4,000) (13,592) (17,322) 2,553 2,641 1,411 1,291

502 223 522

556

4,000 3,900 9,057 9,412 585 625 450 450 300 300

1,335 1,375 650 525

455 395

2,015
5,515

80 100 3,200 6,535
540 787 2,028
50 50

2,618 2,925 49,848 48,816

1.260 1,325

51, 108 50,141 (973) (779)

(47) (255) (57) (542) (526) (1,654) (436) (109) (2,039) (3,339) 973 779 47 255 57 542 526

1,654 436 109 2,039 3,339

2,088

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OBSERVATIONS

The basic observation function is subdivided into five categories-sursace, upper air (balloon and rockets), reconnaissance, radar, and satellite. The accompanying tables show the distribution of various types of observing facilities, by agency, and the total costs of the various types of observations, by agency, for FY 71 and FY 72. The following paragraphs highlight only the agency program changes in this functional area.

In FY 71, the Department of Defense programmed the purchase of six semiautomatic

weather stations to be installed at Barbers Point Naval Air Station (NAS), Hawaii, Brunswick NAS, Maine, Chase Field Naval Auxiliary Air Station (NAAS), Tex., Corpus Christi NAS, Tex., Kingsville NAAS, Tex., and Guantanamo Bay Naval Base in Cuba, and the partial equipment of four weather vans to be located with various Marine Corps Air Groups. Defense further realined its FY 71 activities to account for unfunded FY 70 programs; under this realinement, Defense is purchasing eight Category II Runway Visual Range (RVR) computers, installing six RVRs at Travis,

Calif., McGuire, N.J., Elmendorf, Alaska, and Chanute, III., Air Force Bases (AFB) and at Yokota, Japan, and Mildenhall, England, Air Bases (AB) and using two sets for training maintenance personnel

Defense is realining its radar programs for FY 72 to account for the unfunded FY 70 and FY 71 programs. The program for FY 72 now provides for the purchase and installation of 22 remote radar transmitters and 29 remote receivers at a cost of $1,185,000.

In FY 72, Defense plans to purchase and use less expensive rocketsondes with a resulting saving of $1,403,000. Also, Defense's weather reconnaissance operations and its equipment modification program will decrease significantly in FY 72 with a resulting reduction in the Air Force program of $4,291,000.

As a result of scheduled base closures, the reduction of upper air soundings from four to two a day, and a reduction of observing locations overseas, Defense will realize a reduction in personnel and a consequent reduction in the FY 72 budget of approximately $2,550,000.

In FY 72, Defense plans to purchase and install four Category II RVR computers for installation at Dover, Del., McChord, Wash., Norton, Calif., and Charleston, S.C., AFBs at $372,600; purchase and install five digital winds systems at Travis, McGuire, and Elmendorf AFBs, and at Yokota and Mildenhall ABs at $200,000; purchase 16 APT photorecorders for retrofit of existing systems at $480,000; convert 11 shipboard APT antennas and receivers to utilize GOES transmissions at $220,000; and buy various meteorological instruments to equip scheduled follow-on weather reconnaissance aircraft at $330,000.

In FY 71, The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) plans to upgrade certain existing systems and instrument flight rule (IFR) runways with the procurement and installation of 10 RVRs and six rotating-beam ceilometers at a cost of $256,000. The FAA plans no further increases in this category in FY 72.

In FY 72, The Coast Guard is planning an increase of $1,250,000 to provide for the increased operating costs of the new, larger cutters which are replacing the Second World War vessels.

Commerce is continuing to improve the facilities and services for weather radar observations as called for in the Federal Plan for Weather Radars and Remote Displays. In FY 71, Commerce assigned a number of radar operators to network stations, leased additional communications lines for radar-remoting equipment, and purchased one ra

dar-remoting transmitter and four receivers. In FY 72, Commerce plans to assign radar operators at six new network stations and augment the staff at the FAA's Salt Lake City, Utah, Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) and provide for additional radar remoting at $695,000. The six new synoptic radar network stations are at Grand Island, Nebr., Huron, S.D., Bristol, Tenn., Hondo, Tex., Midland, Tex., and Neenah, Wisc.

In FY 71, the Department of Commerce began a program to replace obsolete equipment and to fill the gaps in the surface observational network by acquiring six new Automatic Meteorological Observing Stations (AMOS)--the AMOS III-70s. In FY 72 Commerce plans to acquire 24 more AMOS III-70s, to continue the program of replacing obsolete equipment, and absorbing observing functions of other Government agencies where reduction in their programs result in loss of data. The FY 72 budget for the above items amounts to $1,400,000. This amount includes funds for contract observa. tions to supplement the AMOS III-70s.

In the category of upper air observations, Commerce in FY 71 acquired five low-level sounding systems, including surface weather-observing devices, to support the Air Pollution Control Meteorological Service to Federal, State, and local agencies. This program will continue to be expanded; in FY 72, Commerce plans to procure three more of these three-dimensional weather data acquisition systems at $81,000 to provide the necessary input data for forecasting air pollution potential. In support of the monitoring of the long term global trends in atmospheric constituents and properties likely to produce climatic change, Commerce in FY 72 plans to augment the staff and equipment at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, and establish a new base line monitoring station at a remote site in the Arctic at a total of $410,000.

As part of its program to automate upper air observations, Commerce in FY 71 acquired small dig. ital computers for nine stations in Alaska and the Pacific.

In a continuing effort to fulfill its responsibilities to the Basic Meteorological Service, Commerce in FY 72 is assuming the operation and maintenance supporting activities for the upper air station at Swan Island in the Caribbean Sea) upon the withdrawal of the FAA, and operation and maintenance of the upper air station at Key West, Fla., upon termination of operations by Defense at a total cost of $220,000.

In an associated action involving the organization of NOAA, Executive Order No. 11564 was is.

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AGENCY OPERATIONAL COSTS BY TYPE OF OBSERVATION

Surface

Weather

Upper air
(balloon)

Upper air
(rocket)

Weather

radar

Weather
satellite

reconnaissance

Total

FY 71

FY 72

FY 71

FY 72

FY 71

FY 72

FY 71

FY 72 FY 71 FY 72

FY 71

FY 72

FY 71

FY 72

AEC
308 292 529 502

837 794 Commerce 16,427 17,540 14,384 14,907

4, 485 5,032 18,130 19,461 53,426 56.940 Defense. ... (14,107) (12,240) (13,831) (12, 136) (3,009) (1,895) (45,222) (40,931) (920) (1,741) (1,675) (1,442) (78,764) (70,385) Army 200 200 9,268 7,960

9,468 8,160 Navy 4,462 3,182 538 454 90 76 3,674 3,436 619 227 1,327 1,230 10,710

8,605 Air Force 9. 445 8,858 4,025 3,722 2,919

1,819

41,548 37,495 301 1,514 348 212 58,586 53,620 NASA 93 82 200 184 70 91

14 19 15 1 392 377 Transporta tion (5, 857) (6,218) (8,500) (9,250)

(14,357) (15,468) Coast Guard..

1,500
2,000 8,500 9, 250

10,000 11,250 FAA 4,357 4,218

4,357 4,218

Total

36,792

36,372

37, 444 36,979

3,079 1,986

45,222

40,931 5,419

6,792 19,820 20,904 147,776 143, 964

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