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In our reports to the NSF which compiles Federal funds for FCST, we report 28% of our environmental research as basic research, 54% as applied research, and 18% as development. According to the NSF definition: “In basic research the investigator is concerned primarily with gaining fuller knowledge or understanding of the subject under study."
All of our environmental research is, however, directed at the immediate problems discussed above and, therefore, in the sense of your question, none of it is basic research.
That portion of our environmental research which deals with prevention and control technology (7%) is largely devoted to technology development. The remainder of the program (93%) is devoted to assessing the human and environmental consequences of nuclear operations and, hence, may be classified as technology assessment.
5. List your current research projects on ecosystem structure and function, if any.
(1) Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Ecological Sciences Division: Radionuclide cycling in aquatic ecosystems, Radionuclide cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, Responses of animals to ionizing radiation, Responses of plants and plant communities to ionizing radiation, Systems ecology, Watershed aquatic habitat interactions. S. I. Auerbach, Director.
(2) Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Ecosystems Department: Terrestrial animal ecology, Terrestrial plant ecology, Mechanisms of transport and uptake of radionuclides in the Alaskan environment, Analysis of natural systems, Ecological characteristics of the Columbia River, Effects of modifications on Columbia River ecosystems. Burton E. Vaughan, Manager.
(3) UCLA, Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology: Physiological ecological studies of desert vegetation. Radiobiology of desert vegetation in soils, Continuous gamma irradiation of natural populations of desert animals, O. R. Lunt, Director.
(4) Puerto Rico Nuclear Center: Marine Biology Program, William 0. Forster; Terrestrial Ecology, Richard G. Clements.
(5) Du Pont de Nemours (E. I.) and Co., Savannah River Laboratory : Concentration of radionuclides by aquatic biota. R. S. Harvey.
(6) Brookhaven National Laboratory, Environmental Biology : Effects of ionizing radiation on terrestrial ecosystems, Cycling in ecological systems, Metabolism and production of a forest G. M. Woodwell.
(7) USDA North Central Forest Experiment Station : Radiobiology of northern forest communities. Thomas D. Rudolph.
(8) University of California, Scripps Institute of Oceanography: Research on the marine food chain. Richard Eppley.
(9) University of California, Scripps Institute of Oceanography: The deep circulation and deep fish populations in the Pacific Ocean. John D. Isaacs.
(10) Colorado State University, Department of Range Science: A statistical study of basic ecological variations in a shortgrass prairie site. Charles D. Bonham.
(11) Colorado State University, Department of Radiology and Radiation Biology : Radioecology of some natural organisms and systems in Colorado. F. Ward Whicker.
(12) Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory: Biological productivity in the Gulf Stream and the U.S. Atlantic coastal waters between Montauk Point and the Chesapeake Bay area. Oswald A. Roels.
(13) Emory University, Department of Biology : Effects of radiation on plant and animal communities. Robert B. Platt.
(14) University of Florida, Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station : Simulation of ecological engineering systems. H. T. Odum.
(15) University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory: Ecological and radioecological investigations at the AEC Savannah River Plant. Eugene P. Odum, F. B. Golley, R. J. Beyers.
(16) University of Georgia, Department of Zoology: Field experiments on the flux of radionuclides through a salt-marsh ecosystem. L. R. Pomeroy.
(17) Indiana University, Department of Microbiology: Microbiology of thermally polluted environments. Thomas D. Brock.
(18) The Johns Hopkins University, McCollum-Pratt Institute: Bioluminescence and productivity in estuarine environments. H. H. Seliger.
(19) The Johns Hopkins University, Chesa peake Bay Institute: Biology of trace elements in marine and estuarine waters. W. Rowland Taylor.
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(20) University of Maryland, Chesapeake Bay Laboratory: Biological effects of nuclear steam electric station operations on estuarine systems.
(21) University of Miami, Rosensteil School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences: Ecology of South Biscayne Bay in the vicinity of Turkey Point. Richard Bader, Martin Roesder.
(22) University of Michigan, Great Lakes Research Division: Nutrient enrichment and eutrophication of Lake Michigan. David C. Chandler.
(23) U'niversity of Michigan, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries: Nutrient cycling and productivity of dystrophic lake-bog systems. Frank F. Hooper. (See also number 24).
(24) Notre Dame University, Department of Biology : Nutrient cycling and productivity of dystrophic lake-bog systems. T. C. Griffing. (See also number 23).
(25) City College of the City University of New York, the City College Research Foundation : The effects of environmental stress on the community structure and productivity of salt marsh epiphytic communities. John J. Lee.
(26) University of North Carolina, Department of Botany : Effects of ionizing radiation on plant species, populations, and ecosystems. J. Frank McCormick.
(27) Oregon State University, Department of Oceanography: Ecological and radioecelogical studies in the Columbia River, the Estuary, and the adjacent Pacific Ocean. Norman Cutshall.
(28) San Diego State College, San Diego State College Foundation : Investigations of physical processes affecting leaf temperature profiles and primary productivity in the red mangrove ecosystem. Philip C. Miller.
(23) Surtsey Research Society : Biological research on the volcanic island, Surtsey, and environs. Sturla Fridricksson.
(30) University of Washington, College of Fisheries: Fern Lake mineral metabolism program. L. R. Donaldson.
(31) University of Washington, Department of Oceanography: Columbia River effects in the Northeast Pacific. C. A. Barnes.
(32) University of Washington, Department of Zoology: Control of productivity and population characteristics in aquatic communities. W. T. Edmondson.
(33) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute : The «ele of organic matter in the sea. John H. Ryther.
(34) Lawrence Radiation Laboratory-Livermore, Bio-Medical Research Division: Studies of radionuclides in ecosystems at sites of nuclear detonations, nuclear power stations, and plowshare gas stimulation and gas storage experiments. Transport of Radionuclides in Soil, Root and Milk Pathways. Distribution of radioactivity in aquatic systems. Bernard Shore, Division Leader.
(35) University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Botany : Investigation of the unusual behavior of cesium-137 and other radionuclides in the Florida environment. John F. Gamble.
(36) Argonne National Laboratory, Radiological Physics Division : Environmental Chemistry of Lake Michigan and the Tributary Basin. Philip F. Gustafson, Associate Director.
6. How much of your environmental research is conducted at your own facilities? Hoe much is done by contract to other institutions? Please indicate the proportion of contract work assigned to each of various types of institutions (university, independent research firm, industry, etc.)
As mentioned in our response to question one, 2% of the program is carried out at the AEC Health and Safety Laboratory in New York City which is staffed by Federal employees. The remaining 987 of the effort is carried out under contract to other institutions. Much of this contract effort (40%) is conducted at the multi-discipline laboratories whose facilities are owned by the Atomic Energy Commission; 18% of the program is conducted at educational institutions or at AEC laboratories on university campuses. Five percent of the research is carried out by industry or independent research firms, and 5% is contracted through other Government agencies.
7. What mechanism, if any, do you hare for identifying and addressing largescale enrironmental questions by interdisciplinary teams? What mechanism do you have for coordinating your activities with the Environmental Protection Agency? Please include copies of any memoranda or letters of agreement which detail your coordination mechanism.
Many of AEC's laboratories were established for the purpose of addressing large-scale problems and they are staffed with scientists representing a broad range of disciplines experienced in formulating interdisciplinary approaches.
These laboratories, their staffs, and complex scientific apparatus are our major resource for identifying and addressing large-scale environmental problems.
Large-scale environmental programs have been conducted at several of our major laboratories for many years. These have focused on environmental aspects of nuclear operations. Over the past three years these laboratories with funding from other Federal agencies have been using their resources and capabilities to formulate and conduct broad programs in other areas of National environmental concern.
The General Manager's staff and EPA have a mutuality of interest in various environmental areas. We have had for a number of years working relationships with various units taken over by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under the circumstances the Commission took the initiative to set up a meeting with Mr. Ruckelshaus and his assistants to discuss our interface interests, and to open the way for the staff level work necessary to develop working arrangements in areas of mutual interest. The Commission met on February 3 with Mr. Ruckelshaus, his Assistant Administrators, and the Acting Commissioner of the Radiation Office. This meeting was preceded by staff level discussions. At our February 3 meeting we touched upon the following topics and agreed that the staffs of our two agencies would proceed to develop them in further detail :
(1) AEC's Environmental Research-Related Activities.-We briefly acquainted the EPA Administrator with the nature and breadth of AEC involvement in environmentally-related research activities and touched upon the capability and availability of our national laboratories to conduct work on non-A EC problems as related to the environment.
(2) Interagency Agreements Between EPA Units and AEC.–The EPA has assumed responsibility for the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory at Las Vegas. This former Public Health Service Laboratory has provided, under an interagency agreement, the AEC off-site radiological monitoring in connection with nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. A significant portion of the funding for this laboratory has come from the AEC. The terms of this arrangement, as well as a number of similar agreements are being reexamined in view of the new EPA responsibilities.
(3) Bio-Medical Research Programs.-EPA recognizes that inputs from radiation effects program as being conducted by other agencies such as AEC are vital to their standards setting function. Working level relationships have been in existence for years with some of the units that have been absorbed by EPA. There is mutual interest in not only maintaining existing relationships but in seeing what further might be done to mesh our research and development programs with EPA needs. We have opened up discussions along these lines.
(4) Environmental Surveillance and Monitoring.-EPA visualized that they will have to maintain close inventory of the environment, radiologically speaking. To do so will require data as to what radioactivity has been released, where it was released, perhaps what dose commitment to the people has resulted, how such information might be gathered, and how it is to be publicly released. These are matters the two agencies are discussing since we will be the source of much of the data.
(5) Thermal Effects Research and Development.--AFC and Water Quality Office of EPA have a mutual interest in thermal effects research and our two agencies have been funding the bulk of thermal effects research being done by the Federal Government. Not only have the staffs involved in these areas met to discuss their individual programs of research, there are a number of studies that the two agencies are cooperatively funding. In addition, the two agencies have jointly participated in an OST sponsored study to identify the totality of the Federal effort on thermal effects research.
(6) Uranium Mining and Mill Tailings. Both of our agencies are involved in an interagency examination of the matter of radiation protection standards for uranium miners. In addition, both are involved in a problem involving radon levels where mill tailings have been employed for land fill.
(7) Communication Line8.-Long standing arrangements have been in existence for notifying HEW headquarters in the event of any accident involving radioactive contamination of the environment off-site, or of any accident which would result to a threat to public safety. Similar arrangements have been set up for notifying EPA officials.
Discussions of matters of common interst to the AEC's regulatory staff and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began before EPA became operational ( December 3, 1970), and have been held frequently since that time. These contacts have been with two principal organizations within EPA—the Radiation Office and the Water Quality Office and also contacts have been made with the General Counsel of EPA.
REGULATORY STAFF DISCUSSIONS WITH EPA RADIATION OFFICE Regular contacts between the AEC regulatory staff and the Radiation Office have been established in connection with the review and development of radiation protection standards, as well as in the field of environmental monitoring. While EPA has the primary responsibility of establishing generally applicable environmental radiation protection standards, AEC has the responsibility for the implementation and enforcement of these standards through its licensing and regulatory authority.
Representatives from EPA have participated in meetings that were called by the AEC with industry and other groups for the purpose of discussing its recent regulations for keeping releases of radioactive effluents from licensed facilities to as low as practicable. Discussions are continuing between EPA and AEC repre sentatives on defining interface between the two agencies on the development and implementation of generally applicable environmental radiation standards.
There have also been discussions between the two organizations on the subject of emergency planning in the event of a serious accident. All of these meetings and exchanges of information have been helpful.
INTERFACE BETWEEN AEC REGULATORY STAFF AND EPA'S WATER QUALITY OFFICE
Discussions between the Water Quality Office and the AEC regulatory staff to date have been for the major purpose of understanding and clarifying the respective responsibilities of the two agencies in regard to implementing the National Environmental Policy Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended by the Water Quality Improvement Act (WQIA). With respect to its responsibilities under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, EPA issued for public comment a proposed rule on “State Certification of Activities Requiring Federal License or Permit.” After reviewing the proposed rule, the AEC submitted comments to EPA on March 27, 1971.
To date the AEC has forwarded some six water quality certifications to the Administrator of EPA, and in one instance a State New Hampshire) has expressed an interest in requesting a hearing under the provisions of section 21 (b) (2) of the Act. The AEC regulatory staff has held discussions with repre sentatives of the State, and has been in contact with representatives of EPA concerning the requirements in section 21 (b) (2) to submit recommendations should a hearing be requested.
In the development of the AEC's Draft Guide for the Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plants we solicited from EPA their suggestions for the type and kind of information they would need in the review of AEC environmental statements, and received comments and suggestions both from EPA's Radiation Office and Water Quality Office. Representatives from both of these offices also attended and participated in meetings with representatives of State agencies with environmental responsibilities which met with the AEC for the purpose of reviewing the AEC's December 4 policy statements on Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act.
8. What important questions, if any, are you unable to research adequately within your existing research structure? What are the main hindrances to proceeding with such research?
Under our present research structure, we do not ordinarily carry out research on problems in areas of “soft sciences" such as sociology, political science, and government. Although there is an interaction between the economic, social and political aspects of environmental problems and their scientific and technical aspects, in line with our program responsibilities we have over the years not developed broad capabilities and resources at our laboratories in the social sciences and, hence, our laboratories are not staffed to formulate and pursue large programs in these areas. However, we are devoting attention to certain economic and demographic aspects of some of the problems.
Furthermore, although the competence of our laboratories is broad enough to engage in work across the spectrum of environmental problems, AEC's statutory authority to conduct environmental activities for its own account, including activities in the social sciences, is essentially limited to nuclear-oriented interests. However, as indicated in the response to question 3, AEC's laboratories are being made available to do environmental and health research and development for other agencies.
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE,
Washington, D.C., July 8, 1971. Hon. EDMUND S. MUSKIE, Chairman, Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution, Committee on Public
Works, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: This is in reply to your letter to Secretary Stans of May 14, 1971, requesting information for use by your Subcommittee with respect to the active research programs of this Department in the fields of environmental science and technology.
The Department of Commerce carries on such research through three of its constituent units, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Bureau of Standards and the Maritime Administration. There are enclosed detailed replies to your questions submitted by each of those three units of the Department.
In addition to the detailed answers of those three bureaus with respect to the questions raised in your letter, we wish to submit the following further answer to question 7.
Question. “What mechanism, if any, do you have for identifying and addressing large-scale environmental questions by interdisciplinary teams? What mechanism do you have for coordinating your activities with the Environmental Protection Agency?”
Answer. There has been established in the Department an Environmental Work Group to serve as an environmental action and communications mechanism under the chairmanship of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Affairs. The Work Group is charged with the responsibility of mobilizing the resources of the several agencies of the Department of Commerce in developing departmental positions on environmental issues as well as proposed solutions to environmental problems that come under the cognizance of the Department of Commerce.
The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Affairs and the Environmental Work Group, under his direction, are in close communication with all of the Federal departments and agencies with responsibilities for addressing environmental questions and, in particular, with the Environmental Protection Agency and the Council on Environmental Quality. The Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Affairs routinely consults both the Environmental Protection Agency and the Council on Environmental Quality in preparing Department of Commerce positions on environmental issues as well as environmental impact statements on major actions proposed in the Department of Commerce. If we can be of any further assistance in this matter, please call upon us. Sincerely,
MICHAEL F. BUTLER,
Deputy General Counsel. Enclosures.
ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PROGRAMS General
Maritime Administration initial statutory authority stems from the Merchant Marine Act of 1936, which directs the agency to carry out a broad program in support of an American Merchant Marine. Within these activities, and in support of the Oil Pollution Act of 1961 which implemented the 1954 International Oil Pollution Convention, the Maritime Administration has been involved since 1961 in reducing ship-generated pollution by fostering clean ballast systems for our subsidized cargo vessels, funding R & D projects for the design of oily