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ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM OF UNITED STATES COAST GUARD DEPARTMENT

OF TRANSPORTATION 1. Coast Guard environmental research is accomplished by the Applied Sciences and the Pollution Control Project Branch of the Office of Research and Development, and the Coast Guard Oceanographic Unit. Specific environmental research activities of those components are performed in support of operational requirements of Coast Guard missions. Primary areas of research include maritime pollution prevention and control, arctic research for polar operations, and oceanography in support of improved search and rescue capability. Some laboratory and field support for environmental research is also provided by the Coast Guard Field Testing and Development Center at Baltimore, Maryland. This paper is concerned with environmental pollution research only. If further information concerning work performed for other agencies and general oceanographic work is desired, I would be glad to supply it at a later time.

2. Fields of specialization and advanced degrees held are as follows:
Applied Sciences Division
Chemical Oceanography:

Ph. D, Analytic Chemistry.
Ph. D, Geochemistry.
Ph, D, Minerology.

MS, Geochemistry.
Marine Geology:

Ph. D, Geology.
MS, Geology.

MS, Geology.
Physical Oceanography: Ph. D, Physical Oceanography.
Hydroacoustics : Ph. D, Marine Geophysics.
Applied Meterology : Ph. D, Oceanography.

Remote Sensing: MS, Electronics Engineering.
Pollution Control Branch
Remote Sensing :

Ph. D, Physics.

MS, Physics.
Sewage Pollution : MS, Sanitary Engineering.
Oil Pollution :

Naval Engineer.
MS, Naval Architecture (3 each).

MS, Mechanical Engineering.
Air Pollution : MS Nuclear Effects.
Hazardous Chemical Pollution :

Naval Engineer.

MS, Chemical Engineering. 3. Coast Guard funding for environmental research and development is appropriated on an annual basis. Funding may be conveniently divided into two major categories : Pollution R. & D. Activity:

Fiscal Year 1971, $5,384,000.

Fiscal Year 1972, $5,992,000. General Environmental Research :

Fiscal Year 1971, $200,000.

Fiscal Year 1972, $1,000,000. 4. Projects being pursued are designed to:

(a) Develop methods to prevent and cleanup oil and hazardous pollutant spills in the navigable waters and coastal high seas.

(b) Develop a fundamental understanding of the movement of surface currents.

(c) Develop all weather remote sensing techniques to detect pollutant spills and thereby improve Coast Guard maritime law enforcement capability.

(d) Develop marine sanitation devices that are capable of meeting sewage treatment standards, for use in Coast Guard vessels. None of the Coast Guard's R. & D, activity can be classified as “basic" research. All of our work is directed towards meeting specific end objectives to assist in “problem solving”. Approximately 90 percent of the total R. & D. effort is directed towards technology development. Ten percent is directed towards technology assessment.

64-737--71-pt. 2- 43

5. Not generally applicable to Coast Guard R. & D.

6. Approximately 20 percent of Coast Guard environmental R. & D. is conducted in-house. The remaining 80 percent is contracted to other institutions. The distribution of contracted activity is 10 percent to universities, 10 percent to other government labs and the remainder to private industry.

7. Overall coordination of Coast Guard response to large-scale environmental questions is provided by the Marine Environmental Protection Coordinator in Coast Guard Headquarters. He is assisted by representatives from each of the major staff components such as Legal, Merchant Marine Safety, and Research and Development.

From a scientific/technical standpoint, the Coast Guard has formed a scientific rapid response team to respond to major pollution incidents. The purpose of this team is two-fold. It provides on site expertise to the On Scene Commander and procures scientific data for input to Coast Guard R. & D. programs. The purpose of the Task Group is to avoid duplication of R. & D. effort and to foster mutual support of member agency R. & D. programs. Two working agreements were developed by the Task Group. One agreement, dated 7 December 1970, defines member agency responsibilities for R. & D. regarding Hazardous Polluting Substances Polluting Control. The other agreement, dated 17 February 1969, delineates responsibilities for Oil Pollution Control. Copies of these agreements are attached.

8. The Coast Guard has adequate resources to meet existing program objectives. Future ability to meet research needs is, however, dependent on future appropriations.

The Coast Guard's Five-year Plan for Environmental Pollution Research for Marine Law Enforcement is also attached.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY,
FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION,

Washington, D.C., December 7, 1970.

MEMORANDUM

To: William D. Ruckelshaus, Chairman, National Interagency Committee for

the Control of Pollution by Oil & Hazardous Materials. From : Allen Cywin, Chairman, NIC Task Group on Research and Development. Subject: Transmittal of Agreement on Responsibility for Hazardous Polluting

Substances Pollution Control Research and Development. Enclosed are copies of agreements consumated by the NIS Task Group on Research and Development for oil and hazardous polluting substances research and development activities.

The Task Group on Research and Development was formed in November, 1968, for the purpose of : providing a common ground for the exchange of information on research and development programs; advising the NIC of program needs ; and coordinating future research and development efforts to insure optimum utilization of available funds by NIC agencies. Initially, the efforts were limited to oil pollution control technology activities.

On February 17, 1969, the Task Group approved an agreement for categories of oil pollution control research and development indicating the Federal agencies which should take the lead in satisfying needs in each category.

During the early meetings emphasis was placed on oil pollution control technology as a result of demands for new concepts and methods to control the frequent spills of oils. Recently, separate sessions have been devoted to hazardous polluting substances spill control technology.

The primary interest in the recent sessions on hazardous polluting substances has been the development of an agreement on responsibility for research and development efforts similar to the one on oil pollution control. The Hazardous Polluting Substances Agreements was approved by the Task Group on November 24, 1970.

MEMORANDUM To: Chairman, National Interagency Committee for Control of Pollution by

Oil and Hazardous Materials. From : Allen Cywin, Chairman, NIC Task Group on Research and Development. Subject: Responsibility for Research and Development Activities, Hazardous

Polluting Substances Pollution Control.

Attached is a summary of categories of hazardous polluting substances spill pollution control research and development needs indicating the Federal Agencies which should take the lead in satisfying needs in the category. The establishment of needs and designation of agencies was proved by the Task Group at its meeting on November 24, 1970,

The designation of responsibility will apply to work conducted both in-house and under contract. Also, it should be noted that while an agency may be indicated as lead agency, other agencies may be called upon to provide appropriate supplemental support. The Task Group will closely coordinate the efforts of the agencies.

The Task Group believes that designation of primary responsibility for the various R. & D. activities is a significant step toward achievement of a National program of control impairment of water quality by spills of hazardous polluting substances. In this cooperative effort we can prevent duplication of effort and assure maximum use of limited funds.

J. L. COBURN,

U.S. Coast Guard, MILTON MILLARD,

U.S. Army,
EDWARD T. KINNEY.

U.S. Navy.
ROBERT B. MEDZ,
Health, Education and Welfare.

ALLEN CYWIN,
Federal Water Quality Administration.

FRANK A. SWATTA,
Office of Emergency Preparedness.

NATIONAL INTERAGENCY COMMITTEE FOR THE CONTROL OF POLLUTION BY

OIL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

TASK GROUP ON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Hazardous polluting substances responsibility
Lead agency1

Categories
I. Hazardous Polluting Substances Designation :
(E)

A. Definition, Identification, Decription & Group-
ing:
1. Water Quality, Environmental & Pub-

lic Health.
II. Spill Prevention From Fixed Installations & Trans-
portation :

A. Hazardous Material Packaging: (T)

1. Design & Construction of Bulk &

Packaged Containers. (T)

2. Container Labeling.

B. Storage Facilities and Fixed Installations: (E)/(T)/(D)

1. Prevention of Spills at on-land Fa

cilities. (T)/(E)/(D)

2. Prevention of Spills during transfer

to Water Transport Modes.
C. Transfer and transportation practices and

facilities :
1. Water transport associated spill

technology. (T)

2. Land transport associated spill

technology : (T)/(E)

(a) While in transport. (E)

(b) Effect on the land (edaphic). III. Postspill methodology :

A. Detection and monitoring: (T)/(E)

1. Aerial. (E)/(T)

2. Fixed. See footnote at end of table, p. 1282.

Hazardous polluting substances responsibility Continued

III. Postspill methodology--Continued
Lead agency 1

Categories

B. Identification : (E)/(T)

1. Testing methods (analytical). (E)-(T)

2. Material tagging systems. C. Spill containment:

1. Mechanical-Physical : (E)/(E)

(a) Sheltered and inland wa

ters. (T)

(b) High seas.

2. Chemical : (E)/(E)

(a) Sheldered and inland wa

ters. (T)

(b) High seas. D. Spill control methods and counter

measures: (E)/(T)

1. Accelerated biodegradation and sta

bilization. (E)/(T)

2. Chemical treatment. (E)/(T)

3. Adsorbents. (E)/(T)

4. Dispersants. (E)/(T)

5. Mechanical harvesting :
(a) Sheltered and inland wa.

ters. (T)

(b) High seas. E. Fate and behavior in the aquatic environ

ment: (E)/(T)

1. Sheltered and inland water. (T)-(E)

2. High seas. (E)

3. Reactivity - synergistic/antagonistic

combination. (E)

4. Ultimate fate of spilled materials. F. Effects on water quality :

1. Public water supply. (E)/(H)

2. Fish, aquatic life and wildlife. (E)

3. Recreation and aesthetics, (E)

4. Agricultural uses. (E)

5. Industrial uses. (E)

6. Accelerated restoration methods.

G. Public Health Hazards. (E)

H. Disposal of Recovered Wastes: (E)

1. Conversion to Useful Products. (E)

2. Biological Stabilization. (E)

3. Incineration. (E)

4. Burial-Landfall.

5. Deep Well Injection. (E)

6. Encapsulation. 1 Other Federal Agencies are recognized as having an interest or a capability for Haz: ardous Pollutiog Substances research based on their past and current Research and Development. Therefore, while this agreement on research and development areas of endeavor is for members of the National Interagency Committee, non-members agency efforts have been noted. It is intended that the designated lead agency will carry out coordination of Research and Derelopment between the committee and the appropriate non-member agencies.

KEY TO DESIGNATIONS OF AGENCY RESPONSIBILITY (D)= Department of Defense. (E) = Environmental Protection Agency. (H) = Health, Education and Welfare. (T) = Department of Transportation. X/Y=Agency X, bears primary responsibility for derelopment of the research and development program, Agency Y, engages or can provide a capability in supplemental R. & D.

activity within the category, coordinating its work with Agency X. X-Y = Agencies bear similar levels of responsibility for complementing R. & D. programs

within the agency.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
FEDERATION WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION,

February 17, 6969.

MEMORANDUM To: Joe G. Moore, Jr., Chairman, National Interagency Committee for Control

of Pollution by Oil and Hazardous Materials. From : Allen Cywin, Chairman, NIC Task Group on R. & D. Subject: Responsibility for Research and Development Activities.

Attached is a summary of categories of oil pollution control research and development needs indicating Federal agencies which, in the opinion of the Task Group, should take the lead in satisfying individual need categories. The delineation of needs and agencies with primary R&D responsibility was approved by the Task Group at its meeting of February 14, 1969, and is a direct outgrowth of discussions during the three previous meetings.

The designations of responsibility should be considered to apply to work conducted in-house and under contract. Other Task Group agencies have been advised of FWPCA's unique authority to make participating grants for water pollution control research and demonstration projects which may be utilized to supplement the programs of all agencies listed below. Work conducted under grants will, of course, be coordinated closely with in-house and contract activities of the other agencies.

Also, it should be noted that the agencies are indicated as “lead” agencies. While the indicated agency should have primary responsibility in a given category, other agencies will be called upon to provide any appropriate assistance.

We believe the delineation of primary responsibility for various R&D activities to be a significant step in the National program to control oil pollution. Only in this way can we make maximum use of the limited funds available and eliminate possible duplication of effort. We hope, in future meetings, to be able to assign program priorities to the various categories to permit greater coordination of R&D activities.

However, needed technical information, clean-up equipment and operating techniques can only be provided if adequate funds are made available. We urge the NIC to bring this requirement for R&D funds to the attention of appropriate agencies.

W. E. LEBER,
U.S. Coast Guard,
ALLEN CYWIN,

F.W.P.C.A.
L. TOBIAS,

U.S. Army. EDWARD T. KINNEY,

U.S. Navy. R. B. MEDZ,

HEW LEAD AGENCY AND CATEGORIES

C. Fate and Behavior of Oil in the Aquatic Environment:

(C) 1. High Seas.
(F) 2. Sheltered Waters.

(F) 3. Inland waters.
D. Containment:
1. Mechanical Booms

(F) a. Sheltered and Inland Waters.
(C) b. lligh Seas.

(F) 2. Pneumatic Booms.
3. Chemical Booms :

(F) a. Sheltered and Inland Waters

(C) b. High Seas
E. Accelerated Biological Degradation :

(F/C) 1, Oil Slicks.
(F/C) 2. Oil-Water Emulsions.
(F/C) 3. Oil Absorbed on Sinking Agents.
(F/C) 4. Oil-Floating Absorber Conglomerate.

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