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ment of new fertilizer technology, and expanding industrial and urban development in the Valley. Although TVA is doing the best it can within the limits of available resources, like many other agencies, TVA is limited in its research efforts by lack of appropriations for environmental research needs. Thus, some very pressing environmental problems do not fully receive the kind of comprehensive study and investigation needed to solve them, while others cannot be undertaken.

With adequate financial support, either directly or by cooperative arrangements with other agencies such as EPA, we believe breakthroughs of great benefit to the whole country might be achieved. Research and development projects could be planned and conducted on a comprehensive basis to include (1) fundamental research and field studies to define key environmental problems and identify possible approaches to control, (2) development of control technology, (3) field trials, (4) demonstration, (5) full-scale tests, and (6) application of control technology.

A listing follows of priority needs for environmental research and development that TVA is specially qualified and ideally suited to help meet.

Control of SO2 Emissions From Fossil Fuel Power Plants.-Drastic reduction in SO2 emissions from fossile fuel power plants will be required to meet more stringent air quality standards being promulgated nationwide. There is no prospect that the standards can be met by changeover to low-sulfur fuels alone for all power generating stations. Despite major research efforts throughout the world in recent years, SO control technology presently available or in prospect for the immediate future is inadequate to meet the needs for timely compliance with air quality standards. Expansion of research efforts is needed to solve problems that have been encountered in full-scale application of limestone scrubbing processes and to accelerate the development and application of processes which would recover sulfur in useful form from either the stack gases or the fuel before combustion.

Solid Waste Reclamation and Recycling.-The increasing production of solid wastes and the increasing demands for handling and disposal of these wastes is a problem of national concern. More research is needed in developing systematic plans for waste management, with emphasis on reclamation and reuse rather than disposal alone. TVA, the City of Memphis, Memphis-Shelby County Health Department, and the Tennessee State Health Department are exploring possibilities for a cooperative project to investigate the feasibility of a solid waste management plan that would involve use of the Allen Steam Plant for disposal of the combustible fraction of the solid waste from the City of Memphis. The system under consideration includes wet grinding (hydropulping), metal removal and salvage, glass removal and salvage, possibly separation of salvage of long paper fibers, and the burning (after some degree of wewatering) of the remaining combustible material. A sewage treatment plan is already under construction on a site adjacent to the steam plant, and the sludge from this plant may be combined with the solid wastes for burning, thereby eliminating the need for other sludge disposal methods.

Effects of Thermal Discharges-The environmental effects associated with disposal of waste heat from thermal power plants, both fossil fuel and nuclear, have received increased attentin in recent years. However, in relation to the qualities of waste heat involved and the costs associated with waste heat disposal systems for existing and future thermalelectric power generating stations, research to document and measure these effects has been limited. Additional research is needed on the effects of waste heat discharges to surface waters and to the atmosphere, and to develop beneficial uses of the waste heat. In cooperation with the Water Quality Office, EPA, TVA is planning a large-scale research facility at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant to study under controlled conditions the effects of water temperature on aquatic life. Research on the use of waste heat for greenhouse production of horticultural crops, warmwater irrigation, soil heating, and heating and cooling of poultry and swine houses, is planned in cooperation with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Atomic Energy Commission as a part of investigations to develop beneficial uses of waste heat. Under a contract with TVA, a commercial operator, at his own expense, is experimenting with the use of the warmwater condenser discharge from our Gallatin Steam Plant for catfish production.

Coal Strip Mining-TVA is demonstrating practical ways to minimize the environmental impact of strip mining and to restore strip mined areas to preductive uses. An expansion of this activity is needed to provide large-scale

demonstrations which hopefully would lead to converting to productive use the estimated 50,000 acres of unreclaimed coal strip mine areas and related roads in the affected 25 Tennessee Valley counties of Tennessee, Virginia, and Alabama. In the demonstrations, the reclaimed areas would be incorporated with adjacent lands to provide an adequate base for development of a management plan which would optimize balanced use of the land for timber, wildlife, and recreation. This would capitalize upon the potential of the disturbed areas and surrounding lands for development of wildlife food production and grazing areas, recreation development, and associated benefits.

Role of Agriculture in Eutrophication of Streams and Reservoirs-Eutrophication of streams and reservoirs is associated with enrichment of these waters with carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus and other nutrients which permit excessive growth of algae and other water plants. These nutrients come from many different sources: domestic sewage (including phosphate in detergents), processing wastes, industrial wastes, animal wastes, land runoff, and land drainage.

Of prime importance is researrh, both in the laboratory and in the field, involving interrelationships among physical, chemical, and biological variables which control eutrophication. National research efforts to date have been directed principally to improvement of methods for removal of nitrogen and phosphorous from industrial and municipal waste waters. (Legal restrictions have resulted in drastic reduction in phosphates in detergents.) Expanded research is needed to determine the extent to which agricultural and fertilizer practices and waste disposal from animal and poultry production contribute nutrients to surface and ground waters, and, in turn, their role in the eutrophication process.

Environmental Problems of Valley Industries-Research, development, and demonstration of improved industrial waste disposal systems are needed to accelerate application of environmental controls at many industrial plants in the region that are typical of plants in other parts of the Nation. In the Valley, this need relates especially to paper mills (color in hydrowastes and odor in atmospheric emissions) and to atmospheric emissions from electric arc furnace operations.




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The Office of Health and Environmental Science formulates, recommends, and carries out plans, policies, and programs relating to the health and safety of employees and of the public affected by TVA activities: to TVA's interests in the conservation of environmental resources of the region; and to the development and administration of cooperative relations with other agencies in health, safety, and environmental science studies, demonstrations, and services. It conducts research and development activities in environmental quality control, administers

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the TVA medical service program, and advises offices and divisions concerning accident prevention and hazard control techniques and principles.

Office of the manager

The Manager of Health and Environmental Science guides and coordinates the work of the office which includes the Division of Environmental Research and Development, the Safety Staff, and the Division of Medical Services. He is assisted by the heads of these organizations and by the Administrative Officer. The Administrative Officer assists the manager in coordinating personnel, training, budgeting, and other similar administrative matters; and coordinates information, reporting, and record services for the office.


The Safety Staff develops and recommends policies and plans for the prevention of accidents and control of hazards to persons and property in TVA's work. It provides advice and technical assistance to offices and divisions in their planning, development, and application of measures for the prevention and control of hazards for their operations. It recommends standards, devices, and techniques for hazard control. It reviews hazard control plans, monitors performance, appraises the effectiveness of TVA's safety activities, and recommends corrective action as necessary.

The staff provides safety services directly to certain TVA organizations. It collaborates with the Director of Medical Services, the Industrial and Radiological Hygiene Branch, and the Special Health Services Staff in planning and obtaining application of measures to prevent and control occupational disease and disability and is applying human factors engineering. It plans and develops cooperative relations with other agencies, services, and organizations concerned with safety. It maintains liaison with the U.S. Department of Labor on matters related to Federal Safety Standards.


The Division of Environnmental Research and Development develops, recommends, and carries out plans, policies, and programs pertaining to TVA's interests in the conservation of environmental resources of the region. It makes regional environmental quality studies and conducts approved environmental research and development activities. It provides technical guidance and assistance to other divisions and represents TVA with other governmental agencies with regard to environmental quality controls for TVA installations. It develops and administers relationships with other agencies in environmental science studies and


Office of the Director

The division is under the supervision of the Director of Environmental Research and Development. The director is assisted by the Assistant to the Director (Administrative), Assistant to the Director (Program), the chiefs of the several branches of the division, the Research and Special rojects Staff, the Personnel Officer, and the Supervisor, Management Services.

Management Services, under the direction of the Supervisor, Management Services, coordinates divisional planning, programming, and budgeting and prepares and maintains budget documents for the division. It maintains budgetary control over division expenditures. It assists divisional management personnel n formulating general budget plans, program analysis, and administration of contracts in support of cooperative research projects and contracts for trial of equipment. It prepares fiscal reports and serves as liaison with TVA's Budget Staff, offices and divisions, and with outside agencies on division budgetary matters. It assists the director and the several organization units in formulation, coordination, and administration of divisional management services. It prepares administrative and special reports, develops informational and documentary materials, and receives and routes visitors.

The personel officer assists the Director of Environmental Research and Development in administering an effective and efficient personnel program. He coordinates personnel activities within the division and represents the division in activities with other offices and divisions.

The Research and Special Projects Staff coordinates research activities for the division, keeps informed of new developments and improvements in methods and

facilities relevant to the broad field of environmental science, recommends research projects which offer promise of yielding benefits to the TVA environmental research and development program, and formulates and recommends policies to encourage and facilitate environmental research activities. It serves as the principal point of contact in the division on research activities and represents the division in relationships with other TVA divisions, with contractors for research activities, and with other public agencies, manufacturers, and institutions engaged in cooperative research projects with TVA or conducting rleated research. It handles special assignments requiring coordination of the total program interests of the division with program interests of TVA organizations and with related program interests of Federal, state, and local agencies.

Industrial and Radiological Hygiene Branch

The Industrial and Radiological Hygiene Branch appraises and reports on potentially harmful factors in the work environment-radiation, fumes, gases, dusts, and other toxic agents as well as seeing conditions, noise, heat, ventilation, and air conditioning-all in relation to identified and approved standards. It recommends controls for hazards discovered and evaluates effectiveness of controls applied.

It provides specialized laboratory services in support of industrial hygiene and radiation protection activities. It is responsible for developing and applying the engineering and health physics aspects of radiological health services required in the planning or operation of facilities by TVA. It collaborates with the Safety Staff, the Special Health Services Staff, and the Chiefs, Area Medical Services, as necessary to ensure coordination of work.

Environmental Biology Branch

The Environmental Biology Branch plans and conducts biological studies and investigations as required to support vector control, aquatic plant control, air quality control, and water quality management programs of the division.

It plans, directs, and conducts biological and ecological studies and investigations including (a) entomological research and investigations related to the vector control program; (b) the botanical phases of aquatic plant studies and control; (c) investigations of aquatic plants affecting mosquito production and control; (d) studies to evaluate and monitor the effects of industrial, domestic, and agricultural wastes disposal on the biological productivity of receiving waters; (e) studies of changes in biological populations in streams and reservoirs related to pollution and other environmental stress factors; (f) studies of ecological relationships and their application in programs designed for water resource management; and (g) studies of effects of air emissions on vegetation. It provides specialized laboratory services and resources in support of its botanical, entomological, limnological, and ecological activities. It collaborates with and provides technical assistance to the Environmental Engineering Branch, the Air Quality Branch, and the Water Quality Branch as necessary to ensure coordination of work and to provide necessary program support.

Environmental Engineering Branch

The Environmental Engineering Branch plans TVA's vector control and aquatic plant control programs, provides technical supervision for and coordinates operational aspects of the programs, and evaluates their effectiveness.

It plans and carries out engineering investigations of reservoir environmental factors to identify their role in the propagation of disease vectors and their relationship to optimum utilization of TVA reservoirs. It develops special equipment and techniques for controlling disease vectors and obnoxious aquatic plants.

It provides advisory service and recommends approval for the sanitation aspects of planning and design of sanitary facilities at TVA installations.

It provides field public health engineering services to TVA organizations or concessions operating water supply and sewage disposal systems, recreation facilities, food-handling establishments, and housing.

It provides technical assistance in the administration of TVA landrights related to vector control and sanitation interests.

It mantains cooperative relationships with local, state, and Federal agencies concerned with vector control, aquatic weed control, and environmental sanitation.

Air Quality Branch

The Air Quality Branch coordinates TVA's air quality management plans and activities, advises on plans for air quality controls at all TVA installations, evaluates air quality features of proposed new projects, and reports on air quality management activities and progress. It carries out regular or special atmospheric surveillance activities which may include establishment of air and meteorological monitoring systems, data analyses, and appraisals. It investigates or assists in investigating complaints and incidents related to atmospheric conditions and, as appropriate, recommends corrective or preventive action. It maintains cooperative relationships and exchanges information with official local, state, and Federal agencies. It participates in negotiations with prospective industries with regard to plant locations in the Valley involving TVA land or landrights; provides technical assistance in the administration of TVA landrights related to air quality interests; advises as to air quality control requirements; and reviews final plans for approval by TVA. It identifies the need for, plans, and directs research and demonstration projects to broaden the field of air quality knowledge and to develop new or improved methods or processes for control of atmospheric waste emissions. It operates and maintains a labororatory in support of air quality management activities.

Water Quality Branch

The Water Quality Branch plans and recommends, coordinates, and conducts studies and field investigations to identify and evaluate the interdependence of water resource development and water quality, including the relationship of water quality to health interests and the role of water quality in developing the resources of the Tennessee Valley to serve the widest possible range of human needs. It seeks to maintain accurate information on water quality in the Valley and on waste assimilative capacity of streams. It maintains cooperative relationships with state and Federal water pollution control agencies; and it makes current information available to Federal, state, and local agencies, to institutions, and to groups concerned with industrial, community, and regional development. It participates in negotiations with prospective industries with regard to plant locations in the Valley involving TVA lands or landrights, advises as to waste treatment requirements, and reviews final plans for approval by TVA. It assists other TVA organizations in planning, designing, and operating industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities. It provides technical assistance in the administration of TVA landrights related to water quality interests. It reviews and assesses benefits of water quality control features in plans for regional water-use facilities. It operates a laboratory for essential bacteriological, biochemical, chemical, and radiological analyses.


The Division of Medical Services develops, recommends, and carries out an occupational health program for all TVA employees. It participates in medical research and development activities, demonstrations, and other cooperative health programs with Federal, state, and local agencies and institutions. It maintains liaison with the Bureau of Employees' Compensation, U.S. Department of Labor, to provide or assure TVA employees the benefits of the U.S. Employees' Compensation Act.

Office of the Director

The division is under the supervision of the Director of Medical Services. The director is assisted by the Assistant to the Director (Management Services); the chiefs of the several medical service areas; the Chief, Special Health Services Staff: the Chief, Medical Systems Development Staff; the Chief, Dental and Health Education Staff; and the Nurse (Supervisor of Nursing). He is also assisted by the several medical and surgical consultants who provide specialized advice and services to TVA's medical program through contractual arrangements.

Management Services under the direction of the Assistant to the Director provides management and administrative services for the division including personnel administration; budgeting services; data processing and analysis; reports, contracts, and information services; Bureau of Employees' Compensation activities; and other general administrative services.

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