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needed for broad research and development. The chemists, engineers, agronomists, and other researchers at TVA's National Fertilizer Development Center at Muscle Shoals and in its Office of Health and Environmental Science are highly skilled in technology and approaches needed for pollution control research and development. They have a large body of information concerning such problems in the region and are already at work, in cooperation with other Federal agencies, the states, and with industry, on pollution control programs.

TVA's Office of Health and Environmental Science, through its Division of Environmental Research and Development, coordinates all of TVA's environmental research activities. The organizational structure and program responsibilities of this office and division are described in Appendix B. Because of TVA's interdisciplinary approach, its environmental research is not centered in a single laboratory but is supported by numerous field facilities and the following six major laboratories :

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Water Quality Laboratory.
Environmental Biology Laboratory...
Industrial Hygiene and Air Quality Laboratory.
Engineering Laboratory (diversified engineering research in fields of water and gas flow).
Forestry and Fisheries Laboratory.
National Fertilizer Development Center (chemical and agronomic research and chemical

engineering development)..

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Total.

195

198

393

Question 2.-What are the fields of specialization of the scientific investigators in your laboratories? What advanced degrees do they hold?

Answer. The following list shows the fields of specialization and degrees of the professional staff of TVA having advanced degrees and concerned with environmental research and testing. This staff is either in the laboratories listed above in the answer to question 1 or administers such laboratories. In addition to these staff members, there are other professional employees in TVA with advanced degrees who might upon occasion take part in some specialized aspect of environmental research.

Degree

Field and specialty

Master

Doctor

1

1

2

Biology:

Aquatic biology
Aquatic zoology
Bacteriology-
Botany
Entomology.
Environmental biology-
Fisheries biology.
General
Limnology
Plant physiology

Zoology
Chemistry:

General
Inorganic.
Organic.

Physical
Economics: General.
Engineering:

Chemical engineering-
Civil engineering
Electrical engineering
Environmental engineering
Industrial hygiene engineering-
Mechanical engineering -
Nuclear engineering -

Sanitary engineering-
Forestry: General.
Mathematics: Applied mathematics.
Physics: General
Public administration: General..
Public health: General.
Radiological health: General.

Total advanced degrees..

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Question 3.--What is your present level of funding for environmental research! What is your present level of authorization for environmental research? For how many years?

Answer. Under the definition of research and development as prescribed by the National Science Foundation for its statistical report series "Federal Funds for Research, Development, and Other Scientific Activities," the estimate for environmental research and development financed by TVA from appropriations in fiscal year 1971 is $1.0 million. In addition, TVA estimates that $1.0 million will be used on other projects that will contribute significantly to pollution control or abatement or to environmental enhancement although performed for another primary program objective. TVA conducts monitoring and surveillance operations for environmental quality control. These activities add to scientific knowledge and are of value in research and development activities. Its programs of water resources development, forestry and agricultural development, fish and wildlife investigations, strip mine reclamation, recreation, and tributary areas development have contributed greatly to protecting and enhancing the quality of the environment.

Beyond these activities financed from funds appropriated to TVA, environmental research and development work performed for the Environmental Protection Agency on a reimbursable basis is estimated at $3.5 million in fiscal year 1971.

All TV'A program activities are authorized by the Tennessee Valley Authority Act of 1933, as amended, without limitations on time or funding levels.

Question 4.-What kinds of problems are you addressing under the category environmental research? What proportion of this work would you consider basic research, defined as research producing fundamental, theoretical knowledge which was not sought for immediate problem-solving purposes? What proportion is devoted to technology development? To technology assessment?

Answer. The following list includes major areas in which environmental research is conducted by TVA and a partial listing of specific projects either under way or planned.

Water Quality Research into causes, effects, and control methods for eutrophication in streams and reservoirs, including studies of fertilizer runoff and effects thereof; effects of heated water discharges upon aquatic life and possible beneficial uses of such discharges; feasible methods for reaerating water low in dissolved oxygen released from reservoirs during warm months; determination of distribution and possible duration of mercury in reservoirs and aquatic life; determination of role of surface and other mining on water quality; and improved treatment for liquid wastes from industrial, domestic, and municipal sources.

Air Quality-Sources, effects, and control methods for air pollutants; recov. ery of sulfur and removal of sulfur oxides in efluents from fossil-fuel-burning plants: improved removal of particulates from industrial stack gases; and environmental effects of cooling towers.

Herbicides and InsecticidesResearch into sources, effects, and fate of insecticides and herbicides used for agriculture, forestry, and reservoir ecology control.

Solid Wastes Disposal-Development of methods and approaches for collection, disposal or reuse of solid wastes generated in both urban and rural areas.

Radioactive Wastes--Application of mathematical models to determine the distribution of radioactive discharges from nuclear power plants within aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

Allocation of TVA's current research efforts by categories identified in the above question as follows: Character of work

Percent Basic Research.--

10 Technology DevelopmentTechnology Assessment

60 Question 5.---List your current research projects on ecosystem structure and function, if any.

Answer.-Wildland Resources Allocation-Procedures are being developed by which computerized mathematical models are used to guide landowner decision making to achieve optimum balance of wildland resources, including timber, wildlife, waterfowl, and fish.

30 Effects of Heated Water on Aquatic Life-This project in the early stages of development is a joint investigation by TVA and the Environmental Protection Agency. Eight naturalistic concrete stream channels will be constructed and stocked with a representative selection of flora and fauna indigenous to the Tennessee River. Ditfering amounts of heated water from a TVA power plant will be directed through the channels to discover the effects of such heated water on the ecosystem.

Qucstion 6.How much of your environmental research is conducted at your own facilities? How much is done by contract to other institutions? Please indicate the proportion of contract work assigned to cach of various types of institutions (university, independent rescarch firm, industry, etc.).

Answer.-All of TVA's appropriation financed environmental research was carried out at its own facilities during fiscal year 1971. This is the general practice. Short-term projects may be carried out under contract with a university or private institution but such instances are infrequent and of minor financial concern.

Question 7.-What mechanism, if any, do you have for identifying and addressing large-scale environmental questions by interdisciplinary teams? What mechanism do you have for coordinating your activities with the Environmental Protection Agency? Please include copies of any memoranda or letters of agrecment which detail your coordination mechanism.

Answer.-TVA's coordinated management, planning, construction, operations and research organizations include in a single agency the expertise of many disciplines under unified direction, and long accustomed to working together on large-scale problems. As an example, T'VA's current research program of removal of sulfur from power plant stack gases (a major problem of national interest), embodies key staff from the TVA Divisions of Chemical Development (chemical engineers), Power Resource Planning (mechanical engineers, mathematicians, and physicists), Power Production (mechanical engineers, test engineers, and statisticians), Engineering Design (planning and design engineers), and Environmental Research and Development (air quality and water quality specialists). In the case of one SO2 removal project, that of planning, designing, installing, and operating a full-scale wet scrubber on a 550-MWe unit at the Widows Creek power plant, a special task force made up of representatives of each of the organizations above functions to coordinate and oversee details of that project.

Through informal discussions and joint participation in various working committees, TVA and EPA staff continually exchange information on environmental matters and activities in which there is mutual interest and concern, although no formal coordination mechanism has been established between the two agencies. TVA is presently working in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency in several important environmental fields where TVA has special expertise and experience, as well as naturally adaptable laboratories. These include (1) cooperative research with the Air Pollution Control Office on studies of atmospheric interactions of stack emissions from coal-fired power plants and extensive research on several promising processes for SO2 removal; (2) the development of a comprehensive plan for water quality management in the Tennessee River basin, currently under review in the Water Quality Office, EPA; and (3) a full-scale municipal refuse-sewage sludge composting project at John. son City, Tennessee, in cooperation with the Solid Waste Office, EPA. Just recently TVA and EPA completed administrative arrangements for building and operating a $2.5 million experimental facility at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant to study the effects of heated water on aquatic life. This project, financed by the Water Quality Office, EPA, will be constructed and operated by TVA but will have overall technical direction from staff of both agencies.

All of these research and demonstration activities are handled by interagency letters of agreement, with clearly defined mechanisms for coordinating expenditures of funds, reporting of progress, and evaluating results. We believe that they provide good examples of how two agencies can jointly use their separate resources to best advantage in carrying out large environmental research projects.

Question 8.—What important questions, if any, are you unable to research adequately within your existing research structure? What are the main hindrances to proceeding with such research?

Answer.—TVA's current environmental research and development work is directed primarily to major environmental problems associated with water resources projects, the generation and transmission of electric power, the development of new fertilizer technology, and expanding industrial and urban development in the Valley. Although TVA is doing the best it can within the limits of available resources, like many other agencies, TVA is limited in its research efforts by lack of appropriations for environmental research needs. Thus, some very pressing environmental problems do not fully receive the kind of comprehensive study and investigation needed to solve them, while others cannot be undertaken.

With adequate financial support, either directly or by cooperative arrangements with other agencies such as EPA, we believe breakthroughs of great benefit to the whole country might be achieved. Research and development projects could be planned and conducted on a comprehensive basis to include (1) fundamental research and field studies to define key environmental problems and identify possible approaches to control, (2) development of control technology, (3) field trials, (4) demonstration, (5) full-scale tests, and (6) application of control technology.

A listing follows of priority needs for environmental research and development that TVA is specially qualified and ideally suited to help meet.

Control of 802 Emissions From Fossil Fuel Power Plants.-Drastic reduction in SO2 emissions from fossile fuel power plants will be required to meet more stringent air quality standards being promulgated nationwide. There is no prospect that the standards can be met by changeover to low-sulfur fuels alone for all power generating stations. Despite major research efforts throughout the world in recent years, SO, control technology presently available or in prospect for the immediate future is inadequate to meet the needs for timely compliance with air quality standards. Expansion of research efforts is needed to solve problems that have been encountered in full-scale application of limestone scrubbing processes and to accelerate the development and application of processes which would recover sulfur in useful form from either the stack gases or the fuel before combustion.

Solid Waste Reclamation and Recycling. The increasing production of solid wastes and the increasing demands for handling and disposal of these wastes is a problem of national concern. More research is needed in developing systematic plans for waste management, with emphasis on reclamation and reuse rather than disposal alone. TVA, the City of Memphis, Memphis-Shelby County Health Department, and the Tennessee State Health Department are exploring possibilities for a cooperative project to investigate the feasibility of a solid waste management plan that would involve use of the Allen Steam Plant for disposal of the combustible fraction of the solid waste from the City of Memphis.

The system under consideration includes wet grinding (hydropulping), metal removal and salvage, glass removal and salvage, possibly separation of salvage of long paper fibers, and the burning (after some degree of wewatering) of the remaining combustible material. A sewage treatment plan is already under construction on a site adjacent to the steam plant, and the sludge from this plant may be combined with the solid wastes for burning, thereby eliminating the need for other sludge disposal methods.

Effects of Thermal DischargesThe environmental effects associated with disposal of waste heat from thermal power plants, both fossil fuel and nuclear, have received increased attentin in recent years. However, in relation to the qualities of waste heat involved and the costs associated with waste heat disposal systems for existing and future thermalelectric power generating stations, research to document and measure these effects has been limited. Additional research is needed on the effects of waste heat discharges to surface waters and to the atmosphere, and to develop beneficial uses of the waste heat. In cooperation with the Water Quality Office, EPA, TVA is planning a large-scale research facility at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant to study under controlled conditions the effects of water temperature on aquatic life. Research on the use of waste heat for greenhouse production of horticultural crops, warmwater irrigation, soil heating, and heating and cooling of poultry and swine houses, is planned in cooperation with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Atomic Energy Commission as a part of investigations to develop beneficial uses of waste heat. Under a contract with TVA, a commercial operator, at his own expense, is experimenting with the use of the warmwater condenser discharge from our Gallatin Steam Plant for catfish production.

Coal Strip Mining_TVA is demonstrating practical ways to minimize the environmental impact of strip mining and to restore strip mined areas to preductive uses. An expansion of this activity is needed to provide large-scale demonstrations which hopefully would lead to converting to productive use the estimated 50,000 acres of unreclaimed coal strip mine areas and related roads in the affected 25 Tennessee Valley counties of Tennessee, Virginia, and Alabama. In the demonstrations, the reclaimed areas would be incorporated with adjacent lands to provide an adequate base for development of a management plan which would optimize balanced use of the land for timber, wildlife, and recreation. This would capitalize upon the potential of the disturbed areas and surrounding lands for development of wildlife food production and grazing areas, recreation development, and associated benefits.

Role of Agriculture in Eutrophication of Streams and Reservoirs--Eutrophication of streams and reservoirs is associated with enrichment of these waters with carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus and other nutrients which permit excessive growth of algae and other water plants. These nutrients come from many different sources : domestic sewage (including phosphate in detergents), processing wastes, industrial wastes, animal wastes, land runoff, and land drainage.

of prime importance is researrh, both in the laboratory and in the field, involving interrelationships among physical, chemical, and biological variables which control eutrophication. National research efforts to date have been directed principally to improvement of methods for removal of nitrogen and phosphorous from industrial and municipal waste waters. (Legal restrictions have resulted in drastic reduction in phosphates in detergents.) Expanded research is needed to determine the extent to which agricultural and fertilizer practices and waste disposal from animal and poultry production contribute nutrients to surface and ground waters, and, in turn, their role in the eutrophication process.

Environmental Problems of Valley Industries-Research, development, and demonstration of improved industrial waste disposal systems are needed to accelerate application of environmental controls at many industrial plants in the region that are typical of plants in other parts of the Nation. In the Valley, this need relates especially to paper mills (color in hydrowastes and odor in atmospheric emissions) and to atmospheric emissions from electric arc furnace operations.

APPENDIX A TVA ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND DEVEOLPMENT PROGRAM PROGRAM PLANNING AND COORDINATION- OFFICE OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, DIVISION OF

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Fundamental research

Environmental management
and applied research

Control technology development

Environmental Biology Laboratory. Environmental Assessment Staff. Reservoir Ecology: Environmental Biology Division of Water Control Planning. Environmental Engineering Branch. Branch; Water Quality Branch; EnvironDivision of Forestry, Fisheries, Air Quality Branch.

mental Engineering Branch. and Wildlife Development. Water Quality Branch.

Agriculture and Forestry: Office of AgriculOffice of Agricultural and nvironmental Biology Branch.

tural and Chemical Development; Division Chemical Development.

Industrial and Radiological Hygiene of Forestry, Fisheries, and Wildlife De-
Branch.

velopment.
Division of Forestry, Fisheries and Electric Utility: Office of Power; Office of
Wildlife Development.

Agricultural and Chemical Development. Office of Tributary Area Development Industrial Processes: Office of Agricultural Division of Reservoir Properties.

and Chemical Development. Division of Navigation Development Municipal Processes: Office of Agricultural and Regional Studies.

and Chemical Development. Office of Agricultural and Chemical Recreation: Division of Reservoir Properties. Development.

Water Resources Management: Division of Office of Power.

Water Control Planning.

APPENDIX B

OFFICE OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE The Office of Health and Environmental Science formulates, recommends, and carries out plans, policies, and programs relating to the health and safety of employees and of the public affected by TVA activities: to TVA's interests in the conservation of environmental resources of the region; and to the development and administration of cooperative relations with other agencies in health, safety, and environmental science studies, demonstrations, and services. It conducts research and development activities in environmental quality control, administers

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