Leading Issues in Competition, Regulation, and Development
The promotion of liberalized and deregulated markets by bilateral and multilateral aid donors, and by global institutions such as the WTO, has led to significant attention being paid to competition and regulatory reforms in developing economies. The proce
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Page 122 - Members are not obliged to apply the conditions set forth in subparagraphs (b) and (f) where such use is permitted to remedy a practice determined after judicial or administrative process to be anticompetitive. The need to correct anti-competitive practices may be taken into account in determining the amount of remuneration in such cases. Competent authorities shall have the authority to refuse termination of authorization if and when the conditions which led to such authorization are likely to recur...
Page 114 - France will take the measures which it deems appropriate, and will cooperate with other participating countries, to prevent, on the part of private or public commercial enterprises, business practices or business arrangements affecting international trade which restrain competition, limit access to markets or foster monopolistic control...
Page 119 - The products of the territory of any contracting party imported into the territory of any other contracting party shall be accorded treatment no less favourable than that accorded to like products of national origin in respect of all laws, regulations and requirements affecting their internal sale, offering for sale, purchase, transportation, distribution or use.
Page 114 - Organization to prevent, on the part of private or public commercial enterprises, business practices affecting international trade which restrain competition, limit access to markets, or foster monopolistic control, whenever such practices have harmful effects on the expansion of production or trade and interfere with the achievement of any of the other objectives set forth in Article 1.
Page 273 - The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature.
Page 147 - Private enterprise in the economic field shall be free. It may not be carried on so as to conflict with the public interest, or in a manner prejudicial to safety or liberty, or to the dignity of man. The law will set up appropriate schemes and controls in order that public and private economic activities may be directed and coordinated for the benefit of society.
Page 64 - ... that, if the state of affairs assumed by the theory of perfect competition ever existed, it would not only deprive of their scope all the activities which the verb "to compete" describes but would make them virtually impossible.
Page 65 - Capitalism, then, is by nature a form or method of economic change and not only never is but never can be stationary.
Page 121 - Each Member shall, at the request of any other Member, enter into consultations with a view to eliminating practices referred to in paragraph 1 . The Member addressed shall accord full and sympathetic consideration to such a request and shall cooperate through the supply of publicly available non-confidential information of relevance to the matter in question.
Page 66 - Every locality has incidents of its own which affect in various ways the methods of arrangement of every class of business that is carried on in it ; and even in the same place and the same trade, no two persons pursuing the same aims will adopt exactly the same routes".