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this hemisphere. And I would be happy also to tell you more about what we are doing under this initiative.
Finally, we continue our efforts to bring together the scientists from the leading laboratories of the United States and those in Western Europe, Japan, and other developed countries, among the best and brightest in the world. And I might say, Mr. Chairman, that that includes in recent years three bright young scientists from abroad who have gone to institutions in Iowa and four leading Iowan scientists who went to different places around the world, and all of these to work on such problems as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease, among others.
PREPARED STATEMENT Senator, with our 1992 budget request of $19,922,000, I expect that the Fogarty Center will not only continue, but expand its critically important role in the world's No. 1 goal, which is better health for all.
I would be pleased to respond to any questions. (The statement follows:)
STATEMENT OF DR. PHILIP SCHAMBRA
The global biomedical research community is being influenced increasingly
by a rapidly changing world--scientifically, politically, and economically. The emergence of democratic governments in Central and Eastern Europe and
Latin America, the collective decision by the countries of Western Europe to
unify their economies, and the movement by many former socialistic societies
toward a free market have provided new challenges and new opportunities for
scientists and institutions dedicated to biomedical research.
have stimulated a climate of greater openness on the part of scientists
throughout the world and have made possible extraordinary opportunities for
The worldwide pattern of diseases threatening human well-being is
The programs of the Fogarty International Center weave
together tightly to form a comprehensive yet flexible response to these
challenges. During FY 1990, FIC programs increased the number of collaborating scientists worldwide, and enabled newfound discoveries to be
discussed and studies to be undertaken in laboratories in remote areas of the
Through continuing such combined and collaborative efforts the nature
of these diseases can be understood and their incidence reduced.
It is the mission of the Center to stimulate and enhance this
collaboration at all levels..scientist-to-scientist, institution-to
institution, and nation-to-nation.
We can count a number of successes toward
this objective this past year.
We have begun new initiatives in International
cooperation that take advantage of the improved political climate in Latin
America and Eastern Europe.
We are working closely with the NINDS to develop
a program of cooperation on international aspects of the "Decade of the
Brain," including joint support for a targeted fellowship program, as well as
international workshops and conferences.
The Fogarty Center's ability to marshall NIH research expertise in
response to changing world conditions are exemplified by its two regional
initiatives in Latin America and the Caribbean, and Central and Eastern
Europe, which were implemented in FY 1990.
To date FIC has provided support
for 18 scientists from 6 NIH institutes to conduct cooperative research
activities in 5 countries in Central and Eastern Europe; and for 20 scientists
from 10 NIH Institutes to conduct cooperative research activities in 10
countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.
FIC has also provided support
for 17 scientists from these regions to conduct research in 7 Institutes of
An example is the support provided for a Czechoslovakian scientist
to work in the laboratory of an NIH Nobel Laureate to develop an understanding
of an epidemic of spongiforn encephalopathy in her native country, and its
relationship to similar devastating neurological diseases such as Creuzfeldt. Jacob (CJD) Disease. This collaboration appears to have led to the discovery
of a genetic defect in CJD victims.
Based on the high level of interest in
these two regional initiatives, it is expected that activities will greatly
expand in Fiscal Years 1991 and 1992.
The Center employs a variety of fellowship and exchange programs that
support scientists at every level of experience to promote the interchange of new ideas and scientific knowledge. The research of these FIC-supported
scientists spans the breadth of biomedical investigation. Research
discoveries that have been made in the fields of cancer, neurobiology,
diabetes, and AIDS illustrate this diversity.
Our Senior International Fellowship (SIF) program supports experienced American scientists to conduct research overseas with foreign colleagues.
Since 1975, the SIF program has funded nearly 700 U.S. scientists; In Fiscal
Years 1991 and 1992, the Center expects to award fellowships to 87 U.S.
o An American scientist at the Imperial College in London has
o An American scientist at the Institute for Cancer Research in
London has studied a particular oncogene associated with the
malignant transformation of normal cells.
He found that this
oncogene alters the structure of regulatory proteins which
control normal cell division.
By identifying such individual
steps in carcinogenesis, more specific and effective therapies
can be developed.
Since 1958, FIC's International Research Fellowships (IRF) have been
awarded to more than 2,700 scientists from over 50 developed and developing
In Fiscal Years 1991 and 1992, FIC plans to fund 190 new IRF
awards to applicants to conduct research in laboratories in more than 20
In addition, during this same period, FIC expects to fund second year
awards for 108 IRFs who began their fellowships in Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991.
Research funded through this program is finding solutions to problems that
o Two foreign scientists are working on the cause of Alzheimer's
disease, an increasingly important public health problem due to
the increase in life expectancy of the world's population.
of the characteristic pathological changes in the brain of a
O A Hungarian scientist at the Joslin Diabetes Center of Harvard
University has conducted studies on human cell receptors for
These receptors are the passage ways through which
insulin gains entry into the cell.
It is within the cell that
insulin has an influence on the metabolism of sugars.
reason this scientist is seeking ways to hasten the entry of
Insulin by modifying the insulin receptors-to "widen the
passage ways", so to speak.
This sort of research may open up
the prospect of new op
ortunities for the treatment of diabetes.
Much is expected of FIC's Scholars-in-Residence who represent the best
the world has to offer in biomedical research.
Eight to ten Scholars work at
the NIH at any one time.
A Norwegian Scholar is internationally known for his with NCI investigators on the relationship between dietary nutrients and
pioneering research on fatty acid metabolism and the role of lipids in the
pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.
As a Fogarty Scholar he plans studies
These efforts will include research on the role of retinoids--vitanin
A and related compounds--on cell growth.
Such studies may lead to new
strategies for cancer therapy.
The FIC AIDS research and fellowship training programs, mandated by
Congress, have been established in 11 U.S. universities.
Now in their third
year of operation, they have trained epidemiologists, postdoctoral scientists,
and clinical investigators from 44 countries primarily in the developing
By the end of this fiscal year, 90 scientists will have received a
graduate degree in public health or sc:
ce, and 50 will have received post.
doctoral research training. Approximately 3,500 health care workers will have
taken U.S. supervised short-term courses in their own country in epidemiology
and laboratory procedures. Through these efforts these countries can and are
joining with us in international cooperation in AIDS research.
Under this AIDS training program two scientists from Uganda are in
advanced training at Case Western Reserve University.
One scientist is
conducting research on the influence of the AIDS epidemic on the occurrence of
TB has become a major complication in AIDS patients in all
parts of the world including the United States.
New strategies must be
developed to combat this double threat.
The other scientist is examining the
influence of protein-energy-malnutrition (PEM) on HIV infection in infants and
The seriousness of PEM as a common problem in Africa is
compounded by the alarming increase in AIDS in infants and young children.
This research should lead to new strategies for nutrition therapy in AIDS
The Fogarty Center plays a major role within the NIH in facilitating
scientific cooperation between NIH scientists and those of other countries of
Staff of the Center provide policy guidance and direction, assist
in the development and management of bilateral and multilateral biomedical
agreements, programs and initiatives, and analyze international health and biomedical issues to support NIH, Departmental, and Administration decision
The Center also links the NIH with other international components of
the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of State,
White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, foreign scientific