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fron 10 NIH institutes to conduct cooperative research activities in 10

countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.

FIC has also provided support

for 17 scientists from these regions to conduct research in 7 institutes of

the NIH.

An example is the support provided for a Czechoslovakian scientist

to work in the laboratory of an NIH Nobel Laureate to develop an understanding

of an epidemic of spongiform encephalopathy in her native country, and its

relationship to similar devastating neurological diseases such as CreuzfeldtJacob (CJD) Disease. This collaboration appears to have led to the discovery

of a genetic defect in CJD victims.

Based on the high level of interest in

these two regional initiatives, it is expected that activities will greatly

expand in Fiscal Years 1991 and 1992.

The Center employs a variety of fellowship and exchange programs that

support scientists at every level of experience to promote the interchange of

new ideas and scientific knowledge. The research of those FIC-supported

scientists spans the breadth of biomedical investigation.


discoveries that have been made in the fields of cancer, neurobiology,

diabetes, and AIDS illustrate this diversity.

Our Senior International Fellowship (SIF) progran supports experienced

American scientists to conduct research overseas with foreign colleagues.

Since 1975, the SIF program has funded nearly 700 U.S. scientists; in Fiscal

Years 1991 and 1992, the Center expects to avard fellowships to 87 U.S.


o An American scientist at the Imperial College in London has

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o An American scientist at the Institute for Cancer Research in

London has studied a particular oncogene associated with the

malignant transformation of normal cells.

He found that this

oncogene alters the structure of regulatory proteins which

control normal cell division. By identifying such individual

steps in carcinogenesis, more specific and effective therapies

can be developed.

Since 1958, FIC's International Research Fellowships (IRF) have been

awarded to more than 2,700 scientists from over 50 developed and developing


In Fiscal Years 1991 and 1992, FIC plans to fund 190 new IRF

awards to applicants to conduct research in laboratories in more than 20


In addition, during this same period, FIC expects to fund second year

awards for 108 IRFs who began their fellowships in Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991.

Research funded through this program is finding solutions to problems that

affect mankind.

o Two foreign scientists are working on the cause of Alzheimer's

disease, an increasingly important public health problem due to

the increase in life expectancy of the world's population.


of the characteristic pathological changes in the brain of a

patient with Alzheimer's disease is the occurrence of multiple

areas of nerve degeneration containing an abnormal protein

called amyloid.

These foreign scientists are working on the

cause of the amyloid formation.

Such basic studies are needed

to develop methods of treatment and prevention.

o A Hungarian scientist at the Joslin Diabetes Center of Harvard

University has conducted studies on human cell receptors for


These receptors are the passage ways through which

insulin gains entry into the cell.

It is within the cell that

insulin has an influence on the metabolism of sugars.

For this

reason this scientist is seeking ways to hasten the entry of

Insulin by modifying the insulin "widen the

passage ways", so to speak.

This sort of research may open up

the prospect of new opportunities for the treatment of diabetes.

Much is expected of FIC's Scholars-in-Residence who represent the best

the world has to offer in biomedical research.

Eight to ten Scholars work at

the NIH at any one time,

A Norwegian Scholar is internationally known for his

pioneering research on fatty acid metabolism and the role of lipids in the

pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.

As a Fogarty Scholar he plans studies

with NCI Investigators on the relationship between dietary nutrients and


These efforts will include research on the role of retinoids--vitanin

A and related compounds--on cell growth.

Such studies may lead to new

strategies for cancer therapy.

The FIC AIDS research and fellowship training programs, mandated by

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Congress, have been established in 11 U.S. universities.

Now in their third

year of operation, they have trained epidemiologists, postdoctoral scientists,

and clinical investigators from 44 countries primarily in the developing

world. By the end of this fiscal year, 90 scientists will have received a

graduate degree in public health or science, and 50 will have received post

doctoral research training. Approximately 3,500 health care workers will have

taken U.S. supervised short-term courses in their own country in epidemiology and laboratory procedures. Through these efforts these countries can and are

joining with us in international cooperation in AIDS research.

Under this AIDS training program two scientists from Uganda are in

advanced training at Case Western Reserve University.

One scientist is

conducting research on the influence of the AIDS epidemic on the occurrence of

tuberculosis (TB).

TB has become a major complication in AIDS patients in all

parts of the world including the United States.

New strategies must be

developed to combat this double threat.

The other scientist is examining the

influence of protein-energy-nalnutrition (PEM) on HIV infection in infants and

young children.

The seriousness of PEM as a common problem in Africa is

compounded by the alarming increase in AIDS in infants and young children.

This research should lead to new strategies for nutrition therapy in AIDS

infected infants.

The Fogarty Center plays a major role within the NIH in facilitating

scientific cooperation between NIH scientists and those of other countries of

the world,

Staff of the Center provide policy guidance and direction, assist

in the development and management of bilateral and multilateral biomedical

agreements, programs and initiatives, and analyze International health and

biomedical issues to support NIH, Departmental, and Administration decision


The Center also links the NIH with other international components of

the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of State, the

White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, foreign scientific

institutions, multilateral organizations and non-governmental bodies concerned

with international health and biomedical research.

FIC currently administers

NIH participation in 73 formal biomedical agreements with 39 countries.

To illustrate our role in providing policy guidance and technical

support, in FY 1990 I was appointed Vice Chairman of the Federal Coordinating

Council for Science, Engineering and Technology Committee on International

Science, Engineering and Technology, and Chairman of its Subcommittee on

Cooperation with Industrialized Countries.

These bodies provide government

wide policy guidance on international S&T issues and serve as mechanisms for

interagency planning and coordination.

FIC staff led committee activities to

assess the effects of European economic integration on science and technology

relations with the U.S. and provided guidance for the White House Office of

Science and Technology Policy in this critical area.

As a result of these

efforts, the United States has formed a Joint Consultative Group with the

Commission of the European Economic Community which is chaired on the U.S.

side by the Science Advisor to the President.

In conclusion, the budget request before you will enable the Fogarty Center to significantly enhance its ability to promote International

cooperation in the biomedical sciences for the benefit of all mankind.


will be able to expand research in the neurosciences as our contribution to

the "Decade of the Brain," as well as expand activities under our two regional


We stand on the threshold of a rapidly changing world that offers new

opportunities for scientific collaboration and the exchange of

Through our expanded outreach efforts, we can bring home to the


American people the best dividends that derive from medical research wherever

it occurs in the world.-better health for all.

Our 1992 budget request is $19,922.00.

Mr. Chairman, I will be pleased

to answer any questions you may have.

Thank you.

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1967-1968 1968-1971

Research Assistant, Biophysics Department, Yale
Predoctoral Fellow, National Cancer Institute,
Biophysics Department, Yale University.
Research Associate, Institut für Strahlenbiologie,
Karlsruhe, Germany.
Instructor, Department of Medical Physics,
University of California, Berkeley.
Research Biophysicist, University of California,
Laboratory Director, National Science Foundation
Summer Institute in Radiobiology, University of
California, Berkeley.
Grants Associate, National Institutes of Health.
Budget Examiner, Office of Management and Budget,
Executive Office of the President.
Staff Member, Council on Environmental Quality,
Executive Office of the President.
Associate Director for Interagency Programs,
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences,
Chief, International Coordination and Liaison
Branch, Fogarty International Center, NIH.
Science Attache and PHS International Health
Representative, U.S. Embassy, New Delhi, India.
Director, Fogarty International Center, National
Institutes of Health






Honors and Awards:


PHS Superior Service Award
Outstanding Performance Ratings
Merit Performance Awards
NIH Merit Award
Secretary DHHS Certificate of Appreciation
NASA Research Fellowship, University of California,

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