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fron 10 NIH institutes to conduct cooperative research activities in 10
countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.
FIC has also provided support
for 17 scientists from these regions to conduct research in 7 institutes of
An example is the support provided for a Czechoslovakian scientist
to work in the laboratory of an NIH Nobel Laureate to develop an understanding
of an epidemic of spongiform encephalopathy in her native country, and its
relationship to similar devastating neurological diseases such as CreuzfeldtJacob (CJD) Disease. This collaboration appears to have led to the discovery
of a genetic defect in CJD victims.
Based on the high level of interest in
these two regional initiatives, it is expected that activities will greatly
expand in Fiscal Years 1991 and 1992.
The Center employs a variety of fellowship and exchange programs that
support scientists at every level of experience to promote the interchange of
new ideas and scientific knowledge. The research of those FIC-supported
scientists spans the breadth of biomedical investigation.
discoveries that have been made in the fields of cancer, neurobiology,
diabetes, and AIDS illustrate this diversity.
Our Senior International Fellowship (SIF) progran supports experienced
American scientists to conduct research overseas with foreign colleagues.
Since 1975, the SIF program has funded nearly 700 U.S. scientists; in Fiscal
Years 1991 and 1992, the Center expects to avard fellowships to 87 U.S.
o An American scientist at the Imperial College in London has
o An American scientist at the Institute for Cancer Research in
London has studied a particular oncogene associated with the
malignant transformation of normal cells.
He found that this
oncogene alters the structure of regulatory proteins which
control normal cell division. By identifying such individual
steps in carcinogenesis, more specific and effective therapies
can be developed.
Since 1958, FIC's International Research Fellowships (IRF) have been
awarded to more than 2,700 scientists from over 50 developed and developing
In Fiscal Years 1991 and 1992, FIC plans to fund 190 new IRF
awards to applicants to conduct research in laboratories in more than 20
In addition, during this same period, FIC expects to fund second year
awards for 108 IRFs who began their fellowships in Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991.
Research funded through this program is finding solutions to problems that
o Two foreign scientists are working on the cause of Alzheimer's
disease, an increasingly important public health problem due to
the increase in life expectancy of the world's population.
of the characteristic pathological changes in the brain of a
patient with Alzheimer's disease is the occurrence of multiple
areas of nerve degeneration containing an abnormal protein
These foreign scientists are working on the
cause of the amyloid formation.
Such basic studies are needed
to develop methods of treatment and prevention.
o A Hungarian scientist at the Joslin Diabetes Center of Harvard
University has conducted studies on human cell receptors for
These receptors are the passage ways through which
insulin gains entry into the cell.
It is within the cell that
insulin has an influence on the metabolism of sugars.
reason this scientist is seeking ways to hasten the entry of
Insulin by modifying the insulin receptors..to "widen the
passage ways", so to speak.
This sort of research may open up
the prospect of new opportunities for the treatment of diabetes.
Much is expected of FIC's Scholars-in-Residence who represent the best
the world has to offer in biomedical research.
Eight to ten Scholars work at
the NIH at any one time,
A Norwegian Scholar is internationally known for his
pioneering research on fatty acid metabolism and the role of lipids in the
pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.
As a Fogarty Scholar he plans studies
with NCI Investigators on the relationship between dietary nutrients and
These efforts will include research on the role of retinoids--vitanin
A and related compounds--on cell growth.
Such studies may lead to new
strategies for cancer therapy.
The FIC AIDS research and fellowship training programs, mandated by
Congress, have been established in 11 U.S. universities.
Now in their third
year of operation, they have trained epidemiologists, postdoctoral scientists,
and clinical investigators from 44 countries primarily in the developing
world. By the end of this fiscal year, 90 scientists will have received a
graduate degree in public health or science, and 50 will have received post
doctoral research training. Approximately 3,500 health care workers will have
taken U.S. supervised short-term courses in their own country in epidemiology and laboratory procedures. Through these efforts these countries can and are
joining with us in international cooperation in AIDS research.
Under this AIDS training program two scientists from Uganda are in
advanced training at Case Western Reserve University.
One scientist is
conducting research on the influence of the AIDS epidemic on the occurrence of
TB has become a major complication in AIDS patients in all
parts of the world including the United States.
New strategies must be
developed to combat this double threat.
The other scientist is examining the
influence of protein-energy-nalnutrition (PEM) on HIV infection in infants and
The seriousness of PEM as a common problem in Africa is
compounded by the alarming increase in AIDS in infants and young children.
This research should lead to new strategies for nutrition therapy in AIDS
The Fogarty Center plays a major role within the NIH in facilitating
scientific cooperation between NIH scientists and those of other countries of
Staff of the Center provide policy guidance and direction, assist
in the development and management of bilateral and multilateral biomedical
agreements, programs and initiatives, and analyze International health and
biomedical issues to support NIH, Departmental, and Administration decision
The Center also links the NIH with other international components of
the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of State, the
White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, foreign scientific
institutions, multilateral organizations and non-governmental bodies concerned
with international health and biomedical research.
FIC currently administers
NIH participation in 73 formal biomedical agreements with 39 countries.
To illustrate our role in providing policy guidance and technical
support, in FY 1990 I was appointed Vice Chairman of the Federal Coordinating
Council for Science, Engineering and Technology Committee on International
Science, Engineering and Technology, and Chairman of its Subcommittee on
Cooperation with Industrialized Countries.
These bodies provide government
wide policy guidance on international S&T issues and serve as mechanisms for
interagency planning and coordination.
FIC staff led committee activities to
assess the effects of European economic integration on science and technology
relations with the U.S. and provided guidance for the White House Office of
Science and Technology Policy in this critical area.
As a result of these
efforts, the United States has formed a Joint Consultative Group with the
Commission of the European Economic Community which is chaired on the U.S.
side by the Science Advisor to the President.
In conclusion, the budget request before you will enable the Fogarty Center to significantly enhance its ability to promote International
cooperation in the biomedical sciences for the benefit of all mankind.
will be able to expand research in the neurosciences as our contribution to
the "Decade of the Brain," as well as expand activities under our two regional
We stand on the threshold of a rapidly changing world that offers new
opportunities for scientific collaboration and the exchange of
Through our expanded outreach efforts, we can bring home to the
American people the best dividends that derive from medical research wherever
it occurs in the world.-better health for all.
Our 1992 budget request is $19,922.00.
Mr. Chairman, I will be pleased
to answer any questions you may have.
Research Assistant, Biophysics Department, Yale
Honors and Awards:
PHS Superior Service Award