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[Fiscal years. In millions)

Program or agency

Payments to the public Recom


new obli1966 1967 1968 gational actual estimate estimate authority

for 1968

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Administrative budget funds:
Land and water resources:

Corps of Engineers..
Department of the Interior:

Bureau of Reclamation.
Power marketing agencies:

Present programs.

Proposed legislation for revolving funds.
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.
Office of Saline Water:

Present programs.

Proposed legislation for desalting plant..
Office of Water Resources Research.
Bureau of Indian Affairs:

Present programs.

Proposed program improvements
Bureau of Land Management and other.
Tennessee Valley Authority..
Soil Conservation Service-watershed projects.
international Boundary and Water Commission.
Federal Power Commission and other...

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Subtotal, land and water resources. Forest resources:

Forest Service.

Bureau of Land Management.. Recreational resources:

Bureau of Outdoor Recreation.

National Park Service and other..
Fish and wildlife resources.
Mineral resources:

Bureau of Land Management.

Bureau of Mines and other.
General resource surveys and administration.

Subtotal, administrative budget.
Trust funds (mainly Indian tribal funds).
Intragovernmental transactions and other adjustments (deduct).


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Compares with new obligational_authority for 1966 and 1967 as follows: Administrative budget funds: 1966, $3,356,000,000; 1967, $4,526,000,000. Trust funds: 1966. $146,000,000; 1967, $176,000,000.

Water and related power developments.---The budget provides for continued investment in the development of the Nation's water and power resources. In order to provide for future needs, new water resources projects are to be started in 1968 and advance planning is to begin for projects to be started in later years. However, in an effort to help prevent inflationary pressures in the economs; ongoing Federal construction projects have been slowed down in the current fiscal year. A small number of new starts is being recommended for 1968.

The budget for 1968 includes $7 million in new obligational authority for the Corps of Engineers to start construction of nine water resources projects cost: ing an estimated $150 million in total. Advance planning will be started on 24 projects. In addition, $3 million is included to begin land acquisition for the Tocks Island Dam and Reservoir project in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York. The budget also provides for programs which improve our basic knowledge about food hazards and enhance the effectiveness of our flood control efforts.

New obligational authority of $8 million is included for the Bureau of Reclamation to start two projects and to provide loans to finance two new small reclamation projects. Studies and investigations by the Bureau will include special em; phasis on weather modification research. A thorough review is being made of

alternative solutions to the water problems faced by the States in the Colorado River Basin. When this review is completed, recommendations will be made to the Congress.

Legislation previously proposed will again be recommended to allow the Bonneville, Southeastern, and Southwestern Power Administrations to use revenues from the sale of power to finance capital outlays and operating costs. Enactment of this legislation would place these power marketing agencies on a basis consistent with other business enterprise activities of the Federal Government while retaining continued control through the appropriation process. Revenues from the sale of such power are currently deposited in miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

The Tennessee Valley Authority's activities in 1968 are estimated to result in net expenditures of $111 million. Upon approval of a license by the Atomic Energy Commission, the TVA will carry forward construction of the Brown's Ferry Nuclear Plant, estimated to cost $247 million. Commercial operation of the first unit of the plant is scheduled for October 1970. During 1968, TVA will work with organized groups in 16 tributary watershed areas, many in the Appalachian portion of the Valley, to help in the development of an improved industrial and agricultural economy.

Water quality and research. The Federal Water Pollution Control Administration was transferred from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to the Department of the Interior in May 1966. Within Interior, the water pollution control programs are being reoriented toward attacking the problems of pollution in entire river basins. During fiscal year 1968, much of the agency's effort will be devoted to reviewing and approving standards developed by the States under the Water Quality Act of 1905. The budget includes grants of $203 million in 1968 to assist municipalities in construction of waste treatment plants. Additional funds are recommended for research and demonstration activities authorized by the Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966.

Legislation will be proposed to permit the Department of the Interior to participate with the Atomic Energy Commission and the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California in the construction of a large prototype desalting plant.

Public domain and Indian lands.--The Bureau of Land Management manages 457 million acres of public domain land containing valuable mineral, forest, range, watershed, recreation, and fish and wildlife resources. In 1968, the Bureau expects to spend $70 million on the development and use of the resources of these lands. Total receipts from the management of all public lands are estimated to be $626 million in 1968, including $130 million from mineral leases (primarily oil and gas) on the Outer Continental Shelf, which the Department of the Interior also administers.

Programs to aid American Indians in 1968 will provide for improved schools, irrigation facilities and roads on Indian reservations, and for expansion of industrial activities and housing facilities. New obligational authority of $118 million is recommended for 1968, including $31 million for construction of 15 new echools for Indian children. An additional $30 million is proposed to further improve programs for the Indians.

Forest resources.--National forest lands will provide outdoor recreational activities for an estimated 199 million visitors in 1968. In addition, the Forest Service expects to harvest 12.7 billion board feet of timber in that year, about one-fourth of the timber consumed by American industry. To improve the efficient management of the Nation's timber resources, the Forest Service has recently completed a special analysis which provides useful information for helping to decide which timber investments would be most economical and beneficial. This analysis has calculated possible rates of return from Federal investments in reforestation and timber stand improvement on national forest lands. These calculations show that if Forest Service expenditures for this program are maintained at the 1968 budget level of $18 million for the next 13 years, and are allocated to the highest return opportunities, such investments on 4.5 million acres could yield an estimated annual rate of return of at least 6%. The table below summarizes the results of that study. Similar analyses for alternative programs will provide a basis for comparing expenditures for reforestation and timber stand improvement with other Federal programs which enhance timber supply.

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Recreational resources.—In fiscal year 1968, the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation expects to complete the first Nationwide Outdoor Recreation Plan, which will provide a general guide for all outdoor recreational programs in the country.

Receipts of $110 million are estimated to become available to the Land and Water Conservation Fund in fiscal year 1968, and an advance appropriation of $32 million is recommended to augment the Fund. Together, these funds will enable Federal agencies and States to expand their recreation programs to provide additional outdoor recreation opportunities. Grants of $65 million will be made from the Fund to the States for this purpose and $74 million will be available for acquisition of recreation lands by the National Park Service, Forest Service, and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife.

Because of rising land prices, the budget proposes that all of the $32 million advance appropriation to the Land and Water Conservation Fund be used by Federal agencies to accelerate land acquisition.

The 89th Congress enacted legislation to authorize a number of national sea. shores and other recreation areas. Additional areas are needed, however, in order to meet the growing recreational requirements of our people. Proposals are under study and recommendations will be made at a later date for the development of the North Cascades area in the State of Washington. Proposals are also under study to make the Potomac Valley a model of scenic and recreation values for the Nation.

There is also an urgent need to identify and preserve free-flowing stretches of our great scenic rivers—before economic growth and industrial development mar their natural beauty. Legislation is recommended to establish a National Scenic Rivers System, to authorize a Redwoods National Park in northern California, and to provide for a nationwide system of trails.

Fish and wildlife resources.--Expenditures for the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife in 1968 are estimated at $90 million. The Bureau will operate 30 fish hatcheries and 312 wildlife refuges, including 6 new refuges and waterfoml production areas.

The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries will continue to assist the fishing industry through resource conservation, improved production technology, exploratory fishing, marketing assistance, and programs to modernize the American fishing fleet. A significant advance will be made toward the solution of protein deficient diets throughout the world with the construction in 1968 of a pilot plant for manufacturing fish protein concentrate.

Mineral resources.--The Bureau of Mines will continue research to expand mineral production and utilization, with increased attention to problems of air pollution and oil shale research. A new research program directed toward major improvements in tunneling technology will be initiated. If successful, this effort will be of major benefit to mining, urban transportation, water supply, and other public services.

Congressional approval will be sought, within the authority of the Helium Act Amendments of 1960, for the Secretary of the Interior to enter into long-term contracts in 1968 for the purchase of an additional 24 billion cubic feet of helium. This unique resource would otherwise be wasted as a component of natural gas being marketed as fuel.

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Senator RIBICOFF. Our witnesses this morning are Senator Frank E. Moss, of Utah, who introduced S. 886, and Senator Edward M. Kennedy of Massachusetts, one of the cosponsors.

We also have a statement prepared by Senator Gale McGee, of Wyoming, which will be inserted at the conclusion of today's hearing.

RIBICOFF COMMENDS MOSS' COMMITMENT TO CONSERVATION We are very delighted to have you, Senator Moss. All of us in the Senate have the highest respect and regard for you, not only as a distinguished Senator but as a man very knowledgeable and very dedicated to the whole field of conservation and natural resources.

Frankly, were it not for you, these hearings would not be held. Over the past 2 years, I have been deeply impressed with your dedication toward this cause and this objective.

I would hope, too, Senator Moss, although you are not a member of this subcommittee that you would sit with us after you testify. You are more than welcome to sit with the subcommittee during these hearings, because your questions probably would be more pertinent than any we could ask. You are welcome here, and you proceed as you will, sir. Senator Moss. Well, thank you, Mr. Chairman. I appreciate that invitation to sit with the subcommittee, and I hope to take advantage of that because of my great interest in the subject matter, and I would hope that I could be here at least most of the time.

I appreciate it, too, because I recognize that this is sort of a beginning and informational phase of building a record on which the committee can then work its will, and I would hope that a full record could

be made, so the committee would have the material from which to make a judgment.




Senator Moss. I express my appreciation to you, Mr. Chairman, for setting the hearings now, recognizing it is very late in the year and there are certainly many other pressing things to be done, but have gone ahead and set the hearings and given us this opportunity to make the record, and I would hope that we can build a meaningful record that can then be analyzed and considered and studied over a period of time when perhaps we will be out of session, and, then, perhaps, beginning next year, we can get down to the business of eliminating any defects that we find, or at least coming to a decision.

I say, in the first place, that I do not suppose for 1 minute that the bill that I introduced is the final and last word. It is simply a begin. ning point, as is so much legislation.

Although the idea of a Department of Natural Resources is not new and there has been a lot written and said about it over many years, still there has never been any final action taken in this regard. I think this is where we have to start if this is, indeed, a worthy objective which, of course, I believe it to be.

I have a statement that I would like to read, Mr. Chairman, and, then, of course, I will be very happy to respond to questions at the end of that time.


Mr. Chairman, a few days ago, Walter Lippmann wrote that the citizens of many nations are preoccupied with internal problems because, as he put it, we are “living in the midst of the most radical revolution in the history of mankind."

He then said:

“This revolution is a transformation of the human environment, and of man himself by technological progress which, beginning about two centuries ago, has now acquired enormous momentum.”

The effects of this technological revolution on the natural environment of the United States is, of course, what makes essential the passage of a bill such as S. 886 which would provide coordination of the activities of the many Federal agencies having responsibilities in the natural resource field.

The tremendous pressure which technological progress has exerted on our environment is widely recognized. Just one aspect--pollution of water, air and land–has been the subject of numerous books, maga: zine articles, television programs, editorials and speeches. I believe it is correct to say that Congress has passed more constructive water legislation in the past 5 years than at any time in our history. Concern for our natural heritage gave impetus to the program to preserve and restore natural beauty

which has received so much attention both from the White House and the Congress.

The scheduling of these hearings at a time when the Committee on Government Operations has a heavy load of other work demonstrates your recognition of the importance of this problem. I personally appreciate the action on the part of the Subcommittee on Executive

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