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significantly below the national median on the Iowa English Placement Test." In 1962, entrance requirements were raised sharply. As a result, according to estimates of the school authorities, at least 100 formerly acceptable students were denied admission, and the full-time enrollment of freshmen dropped from 274 in 1962 to 159 in 1963, a drop of 42 percent in a single year. The college simply does not appeal to the ablest students from the District schools or elsewhere (only 3 of the 613 students enrolled full time in the fall of 1963 were nonresidents of the District). Indeed, between 1958 and 1963, at a time when the need for teachers was increasing both nationally and within the District, the number of graduates from the college declined from 123 to 69-a decrease of 44 percent.

All this was reflected in the announcement in 1962 by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education that it was withdrawing accreditation from the college because "the prospects of improving the facilities, maintaining a competent faculty and attracting an able student body were not good enough to justify [its continuation]."

It goes without saying that it would be unthinkable to eliminate the D.C. Teachers College without substituting an institution having resources more adequate to the responsibilities entailed. Not only is it the one publicly supported college available to District residents, but it is also a major resource of the District's public schools. About 75 percent of the graduates of the college enter teaching-about 85 percent of them in the District. As of a year ago, one-third of the entire public school teaching staff-1,673 teachers—were graduates of D.C. Teachers College or its predecessors. Over the years, it has also been a major, though inadequate, resource for inservice training and professional courses for the public school teachers.

Second. The other need to which the recommendation of the Committee is responsive is not simply the obvious disadvantage suffered by District residents in comparison with those of the 50 States, to all of whom publicly supported colleges or universities are available. This disadvantage, of course, affects every District high school graduate. But, more significantly, the Committee's analysis indicates that there are a substantial number of students who graduate from high schools in the District for whom the effect of this

discrimination is not just a higher price for further education, but a complete deprivation and denial of opportunity. These are the high school graduates who are demonstrably able to profit by a general college education, but who cannot do so because of its cost. The achievements of these students are comparable to those of students who can and do go on to a 4-year college, either in one of the local universities or elsewhere.

That there are many such students is certain; just how many is discussed later in this report. They particularly deserve an opportunity for a post-high school education equal to that available to their fellow high school students throughout the United States.

2. The Nature and Purposes of the College of Arts and Sciences

The college of liberal arts and sciences which the Committee recommends should therefore be designed to meet the needs of District students for liberal education, while emphasizing also preparation for classroom teaching and training of special educational personnel, including counselors for the elementary and secondary schools and for the community college. It should grant both baccalaureate and master's degrees in academic and teaching fields, particularly since only the master's degree will qualify a graduate for permanent appointment in the District's secondary schools.

It will be important, however, that the college of arts and sciences recognize its responsibility to provide entirely new opportunities for higher education for young people of the District who do not aspire to a teaching career. In this area, the Committee believes that the college of arts and sciences should concentrate its attention at the outset on offering a strong core of basic liberal studies: in the sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics); in the social studies; in the humanities; and in the graphic and performing arts. In time, however, as needs of the community may be demonstrated, it should be prepared to consider more specialized undergraduate work. In the Committee's view it is preferable, for the present at least, to meet the needs of District students for study in these specialized fields in a manner that puts less of a burden on the college during its early years.

The existence of the comprehensive community college, which should also offer, inter alia, the same liberal studies, will permit the college of arts and sciences to emphasize upper-division work and graduate study through the master's degree. It will also permit the college of arts and sciences to adopt standards of admission and of academic performance comparable to those of other colleges of good standing. Neither of these statements should be taken to mean that it should not accept freshmen, but these should be "college-ready" as well as "college-able”—an important distinction that further illuminates one of the crucial roles of the community college in transforming students of the latter category into students fully qualified for academic work of a high order.

This citation of the complementary roles of the two recommended institutions suggests, as it is intended to do, that there should be the closest cooperation between them. This point is further developed below in the discussion of the organization and relationships of the institutions. It goes without saying, moreover, that the college of arts and sciences should likewise enjoy the special features recommended for the community college, such as the fullest range of opportunities for the teaching faculty and the benefits of a Division of Institutional Research and Evaluation.

3. The Student Body of the College of Arts and Sciences Admission to the college of arts and sciences should recognize the need to provide a college education to District high school graduates who are now deprived of it because of its cost. Tuition, therefore, should be kept at a modest level. While the Committee does not wish to recommend a specific figure, it notes that the cost of attending D.C. Teachers College a $70 general fee rather than a tuition chargehas not appeared to be a major hardship to those who wished to attend. For nonresidents of the District, to whom the college should be open, the tuition can appropriately be set at a considerably higher figure. The work-study program recommended for the community college should also be a feature of the college of arts and sciences.

Since the college of arts and sciences will replace D.C. Teachers College, it will at once attract the kind of student who has hitherto attended that institution. Indeed, it should

attract many more able students interested in careers in education than the D.C. Teachers College now is able to do. The recent drastic decrease in the student body and in the size of the graduating class reflects a cumulative lack of confidence in the adequacy of the existing facilities and educational services. The college of arts and sciences recommended by the Committee should promptly reattract in substantial numbers qualified students graduating from high school in the District whose career goals lie in the educational field.

The student body of the college will also include a substantial number of qualified District high school graduates who do not aspire to teaching but who now, for economic reasons, must forego education beyond the high school. The Committee has devoted much effort to the problem of obtaining reliable data on the need for the college of arts and sciences in terms of the number of District high school graduates who have the ability but lack the opportunity to attend such an institution.

To this end, a careful analysis has been made of existing studies, and the Committee has initiated two further studies of its own-one with the help of teachers, counselors and principals in the District's senior high schools, and the other (a questionnaire) with the additional help of a 10 percent sample of all members of the current senior class who reside in the District and who attend its public, private, or parochial schools.

Based on all the information available, the Committee estimates that at present enrollment levels there will be annually between 350 and 400 "college-able" graduates of the District's public high schools (other than those preparing to teach) who would not go to college under existing circumstances but who would seize the opportunity to do so if there were a publicly supported college of arts and sciences in the District. To these should be added a much smaller number of students similarly situated from the approximately 1,100 students who annually graduate from the District's private and parochial schools. Furthermore, the Committee has had no hesitation in assuming that the college of arts and sciences will also attract from 200 to 250 students interested in a career in teaching or some other type of educational work.

The Committee concludes, therefore, that the college of arts and sciences could be expected, even at the outset, to meet the need and desire for higher education of at least 600 District secondary school graduates each year who are "college-able" but who can afford to continue in school only in a publicly supported institution. The Committee is also strongly convinced, as it has already stated, that denials of educational opportunity of this magnitude must not be allowed to continue.

Moreover, there are factors which, in the judgment of the Committee, will further increase the potential enrollment of the college of arts and sciences in even the next decade. School enrollment in the District is growing. Improvement in the schools, which current awareness of weaknesses and resolute efforts to remedy them presage, should safely deliver a much larger proportion of 6th-grade pupils into 10th grade and 10th grade pupils to the graduation platform for their diplomas. The community college recommended by the Committee will certainly have an effect. The incentive supplied by the opportunity to receive the first 2 years of college at low cost should increase not only the number of boys and girls who finish school, but also those who are ready to go on to the upper years of college. In addition, financial relief offered by a publicly supported educational opportunity for the first 2 years of college work will certainly help the financially marginal family to extend the college experience for its son or daughter over a longer period. The rising demand for college education throughout the Nation will increasingly tax the educational facilities of existing colleges and universities everywhere, and District students will be increasingly dependent upon District educational institutions. Finally, if a program were to be created that enabled boys and girls to find remunerative employment during the course of their post-high school education (and perhaps even during high school), still more students would be able to surmount their economic handicaps and continue their formal education.

A final word is appropriate on one of the earlier studiesthe 1959 report by Booz, Allen and Hamilton. This report estimated that as of that time there were only 175 to 200 "college-able" students per year among the public high school graduates who failed to enter college-a figure which the au

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