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Upon completion of the above survey, some of the curriculum clusters were restructured. Teaching space needs were also revamped to meet projected estimates of need. The proposed clusters of space complexes are outlined below. Actual space allocations are shown in detail for each cluster later in the report. Curriculum groupings

As has been indicated in the foreword, the VTO subject space areas must be classified and divided into arbitrary units. These groupings have been selected as being most appropriate for this particular institution.

A. Auto/power.-This area would consist of space facilities for auto repair and servicing, auto body rebuilding and refinishing, diesel power, electrical power, and gas power, instruction and application.

B. Business and cooperative occupations.-The facilities within this area would consist of spaces for accounting and bookkeeping, typing, shorthand, duplicating, business machines laboratories, a data processing laboratory, merchandising room, model office and store, as well as offices, conference room, work and storage area for the staff. A mock store laboratory would have close relationship with the merchandising room.

C. Construction and industrial trades.-The subjects in the building field require shops which will permit instruction and practice in carpentry, electricalwiring, masonry, painting, welding, sheet metal, paperhanging, plumbing, air conditioning, and related activities.

D. Culinary arts.-It is anticipated that the regular food service areas would be augmented by baking and food service instructional spaces.

E. Graphic arts.-An integrated series of spaces would provide laboratories and work areas for commercial art, lithography-offset, photography, and printing. F. Health services.-This area would provide spaces for practical nursing, home nursing, and dental assistants.

G. Personal services.-This area would contain a variety of unique spaces tailored to accommodate training in a range of personal services. These might include dressmaking, drycleaning, etc., nursery assisting, shoe repairing, tailoring, cosmetology, barbering, and upholstering.

H. Technology.-Facilities within this area would include those necessary for drafting, reproduction of prints, laboratories for electronics, landscaping, research technology, instrumentation, and materials testing.


I. Academic education.-Facilities for academic education provide general purpose classrooms, some of which are divisible to provide for various size groupings of students. Large lecture spaces, small seminar rooms, conference rooms, as well as offices and work areas, would be included for these groupings. of this kind of footage would be duplicated among the curriculum clusters. included would be physical education and cadet facilities, exercise rooms, multiuse lecture room, as well as adequate spaces for offices, storage, and instruction. J. Resources materials center. This facility harbors the library and related activities. It provides control and distribution for all audiovisual signals, electronic or written.

K. Student center. This area would comprise facilities for student and faculty multi-use spaces, food service, dining and activity areas, student store, student government offices, and student publications. It is anticipated that this center will be used for assemblies, discussion, recreation, and social activities.

L. Administration.-This unit would consist of offices and facilities for the administration of the Center and should be centrally located among other elements of the campus, but also is a good location to permit ease of access for the public. Conference rooms, principal's office, assistant principal's office, deans' offices, and a variety of secretarial-clerical personnel would be housed in this area. The business functions of the Center would be carried on here. In addition, facilities within this unit would include spaces for guidance and counseling, an area for admissions and registration, records storage, data processing, workstorage areas, testing rooms, and various offices which are related to the student personnel function. Included in close proximity to this area would be a health center which includes facilities for examination, nurses' offices, lavatories, recep tion and storage areas, and infirmary. These would be integrated with the health services spaces.

This area would consist of a ware-
Included also would be such main-

M. Warehouse and maintenance center. house with a shipping and receiving area. tenance areas as custodial and grounds shops. In addition, an office area, showertoilet, change room, and service yard would be provided.

It should be noted that these categories do not necessarily relate to the way in which the functions and spaces are to be arranged.

Finally: The building of this kind of facility requires a large expenditure of funds. It may occasion a phasing operation which will cause construction to occur in increments. The cluster arrangements lend themselves to an approach

of this sort.

To figure the approximate probable costs, three major items will need to be computed:

(a) Construction costs: Multiply footage by estimated cost per foot. (b) Furniture and equipment: A general rule of thumb for regular schools suggests this to be 20 percent of construction costs. However, a facility of this sort, and depending upon use of items already District owned, should budget not less than 50 percent of construction costs.

(c) Property: Washington, D.C. land costs are extremely high. If eminent domain proceedings are required and/or private property acquired, costs could exceed several millions.

Thus one might compute:

(a) $27 times 725,830_.

(b) 50 percent of $19,597,410_.

(c) Property costs..


Plus miscellaneous consultants, architect's fees, etc., 10 percent---


$19,597, 410 9, 798, 705 ?

29, 396, 115

2, 939, 611

32, 335, 726

Actually $27 per square foot might be an excessive figure. This must be determined by an architect, or someone conversant with the District of Columbia building costs. The purpose of this example is only to caution that such costs are generally underestimated.


In the years immediately ahead the youth of America face some of the most perplexing occupational problems ever confronted by young people in our country. The change from rural living to urban dwelling continues rapidly, while automation and improved production processes and materials shorten the workspan once required for producing the necessities of life for our population. The transition from providing merely food, clothing and shelter for every American (which initially was the basic problem), to now providing for a much broader gamut of needs, requires many social, political, and economic adjustments. These are not simple to conceive and comprehend, and are even more difficult to implement and operate smoothly. It is in a period of great transition in all of these matters that we now find ourselves. It is therefore difficult for us to clearly understand all of these problems and their solutions, let alone to bring comprehension concerning them to our youth.

If we were to select only three facts which are of greatest consequence from a vast array that profoundly affects our educational program today, they might well be the following:

1. There is little or no (or at least a steadily decreasing amount of) demand by employers now to employ, for paid work, our youth under 18 years of age in most urban centers.

2. When pupils graduate at age 18 from high school to commence work, or get jobs without graduation at that age or earlier, there is ordinarily very little job skill or vocational knowledge required to get and hold their initial jobs.

3. Not all children like intellectual approaches to learning equally well; some do not like intellectual approaches at all. Each child (or learner) needs to be challenged in a way which appeals to him if effective learning is to occur, and some children may not choose to learn much of what the schools wish to teach. In short, there are many different ways to achieve learning which derive from differences in individual learner's abilities and interests. These are greater in number and complexity than we ordinarily acknowledge in schools as now constituted.

The foregoing first two generalizations about jobs may differ markedly from one community to another, or from one time to another in a given community, or from one job category to another. But they are becoming more true in more work centers as time goes on. Their applicability, of course, must be verified

in each community continuously as school programs are developed and operated to be sure that current local needs are being met.

What is vocational education?


The definition of the term "vocational education" has been debated in educational circles for many years, and the whole of the argument need not be reviewed here. In part, it is a matter of semantics. In a broad sense all education, formal or informal, contributes to vocational competence. For certain occupations, adequate preparation may require years of collegiate preparation. occupations obviously demand less formal education. In one sense the subsequent use made of knowledge or a skill determines its categorization in a large measure. Thus, every subject is vocational, or perhaps none is inherently that. For the purposes of this study, however, vocational education is intended to mean any high school, junior college, or adult education program that deals specifically in an organized and systematic manner with the acquisition of skills, understandings, attitudes, and abilities that are necessary for entry into and successful progress within a specific occupation or job family.

The concerns of this study extend beyond the mere specific skill acquisition needed for an initial job. We are concerned with the whole program of occupational information collection and dissemination, with occupational counseling, and with the use of practical and manual subjects such as were indicated earlier in this report as avenues toward and alternate approaches for many pupils for securing satisfying additional general education.

Washington, D.C., programs in vocational education

The sound public school education program in Washington, D.C., as elsewhere, should do the following:

1. Provide adequate occupational information about present and future job opportunities locally, regionally, and nationally.

2. Assist each pupil to determine as well as can be done some satisfying occupational goal and as realistically as possible, a plan for achieving this goal. 3. Develop a school program for every pupil that is as worthwhile and personally satisfying as possible for each pupil. This should include:

(a) Intellectual development to the full capability of each pupil irrespective of his vocational goal.

(b) Meeting of the technical requirements for entrance at an appropriate college of his choice for those pupils who are to continue their formal schooling beyond current available programs.

(c) Meeting of the specific skill and knowledge requirements for entrance into any available jobs for those pupils who do not continue their formal schooling.

(d) Adaptation of the school requirements and structuring of the learning program to meet individual pupil interests and abilities, so that most pupils will find satisfaction in regular school attendance through the 12th grade.

4. Offer day and evening year-around programs for adults and post-highschool youth, including courses designed to bring about vocational upgrading, occupational retraining, etc.

As shown in previous chapters of this report, each Washington vocational school is achieving many aspects of the foregoing program. No school is completely satisfied, however, with its present accomplishment.

The present scope of vocational programs offered by the secondary schools of Washington, D.C., include instruction in each of the areas defined as "vocational education" by the various Federal acts under which financial assistance is offered. However, the qualifications for Federal assistance are substantially restrictive, and some instruction is offered outside of the Federal program. Thus, while the number of pupils enrolled in federally qualifying vocational education programs in the vocational high schools of Washington, D.C., is limited, the number of career-oriented programs being offered, and the number of students enrolled in such programs are significant. The highest enrollments are those courses designed to prepare youth for entry-level jobs in the clerical/kindred occupations, with lesser numbers enrolled in courses in the field of domestic/ household service.


To provide for the sound public school multipath education program that is obviously desired by the schools of Washington, D.C., and especially to provide for those aspects of education which are, or might be, classified as vocational education, we offer the following recommendations.

1. Every pupil irrespective of his term of schooling needs a continuous contact with reliable and appropriate (for him) occupational information. Studies have shown that this need begins earlier than is commonly supposed-in the early elementary grades. Thus, in any school system there must be developed a plan for gathering, interpreting, and disseminating occupational information that is relevant to the local situation and to the age and level of the pupil concerned. Such a program must be continuous, perpetual, and well-articulated. 2. The task of accomplishing the objective stated above is a mammoth one and will require the cooperation and assistance of many within a planned program. Specially qualified persons should be available to assist and coordinate the activities of the counseling and teaching staff in matters concerning occupational information and counseling. This might be organized so that one coordinator would service one high school, plus its feeder junior highs and elementary schools.

3. Additionally, a citywide center for occupational information materials collection, preparation, and dissemination should be established in the Office of the Assistant Superintendent (Vocational Education). A staff member in this Office should be assigned the responsibility of coordinating these activities with the identification and development of new programs designed to fulfill local and/or citywide needs.

4. Together, the coordinators assigned to the schools, and the central office staff member, should constitute a professional occupational education coordinating committee. This committee should continuously review the programs offered and the occupational needs defined to determine the initiation and location of new programs. This committee should also contribute the nucleus of a broader committee involving all agencies conducting, or planning to begin, vocational programs (Department of Employment, Welfare Department, Economic Opportunities Commission, etc.).

5. The counseling staff at each secondary school should be increased (as economically feasible) to the ratio where each counselor has only 250 advisees. In addition, conferences should be held to acquaint each counselor with occupational materials available, techniques, and goals of the program. Further involvement of the teaching staff is also necessary in such conferences.

6. To provide for a continuous, consistent flow of information about career plans of inschool students, about students who leave school prior to graduation, and about the actual experiences of graduates, a citywide data gathering program is urged. Such a program would be established and supervised by the Occupational Education Coordinating Committee and might be programed for data processing equipment. It is anticipated that the initial stages of such a program for the followup of all students in the District will yield data which will serve every aspect of school district programing, and would qualify for funding under the various vocational acts.

7. Looking still further into the future, it is recommended that, as plans for new schools are being developed or older schools are being reconstituted, the possibility of providing a greater range of specialized facilities at the high schools be considered. These might become available at all times of the day and evening for such specialized adult vocational programs as the community needs.

8. Examination of the types of vocational programs presently offered in Washington, D.C., high schools indicates that these are relatively common and are designed for entry into certain beginning jobs available in the area, as is appropriate. These programs will need expansion and continuous evaluation if they are to remain instructionally productive and capable of meeting the needs of the community and students.

9. Begin now to provide ways and means for the burgeoning impact of educating youth beyond the 12th grade. To build the proposed Vocational-Technical-Occupational Center would be a good beginning.

10. Make financial needs known and propose a superior program and/or facility for whatever area is under consideration. Mediocrity or less, in education, is a luxury which the people of Washington, D.C., can no longer afford. Senator MORSE. Our next witness is Dr. Ellis Haworth, chairman of the Legislation Committee, District of Columbia Congress of Parents & Teachers.

Glad to have you. I would be disappointed if I had an education bill and you didn't come in to testify.


Mr. HAWORTH. You can be assured, Mr. Senator, that we will be on hand.

We greatly appreciate all the interest you have shown over the years of educational matters for the country and especially for the District of Columbia.

I have a statement to present on behalf of the District of Columbia Congress of Parents & Teachers, of which organization I serve as chairman of its legislation committee. I would like to read that to you and comment on it, if I may.

Senator MORSE. Very well.

Mr. HAWORTH. Several years ago, in our annual convention, we passed the following items in our action program which is the basis for our statements that we submit to you and other committees of the Congress. This statement is as follows dealing with public higher education in the District of Columbia.

1. We support a program of higher education at public expense and under public control, including a junior college, a college of liberal arts and sciences, a college of education, a graduate school, and such other programs as the needs of the community may indicate as desirable.

2. We believe that the program of higher education should be under the control of a board of education, the composition and method of appointment or election to be considered at a later date.

3. We are opposed to any program of subsidies for higher education in privately controlled colleges and universities.

4. We support a program of higher education with no tuition fees for residents of the District of Columbia.

5. We support the maximum of institutional self-control over the finances of the program of higher education.

6. We support an admission policy on the part of the District of Columbia institution of higher education which shall be flexible and appropriate to the various programs concerned.

7. We support a program of cooperation between the institution of higher education and the District of Columbia public schools and the other colleges and universities of the metropolitan area.

In accordance with the first item in our action program listed above, we recommend that the bills under consideration be amended to provide for the establishment of a university of the District of Columbia. There is need for such an institution.

Every one of the 50 States and many of the larger cities maintain at least one publicly supported and publicly controlled university. The young people of the District of Columbia are the only persons in this country who do not have such a facility for higher education available

to them.

Each year, both private and State-supported universities are adopting more restrictive policies with regard to the admission of non-State residents. Examples of which I have personal knowledge:

(a) The University of Maryland is decreasing the number of nonresidents (especially women) to be admitted and is increasing the cutoff point in class rank of high school graduates;

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