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to express our gratitude especially to the chairman who has done so much to forward the cause of quality education for our children,

We wholeheartedly endorse both the purpose and principle of the two bills under consideration here today. We know that public higher education in our society is no luxury-it is a necessity.

What should we have done for political leadership without it? Both the President and Vice President were educated at public institutions of higher learning. Fifty-six percent of our State Governors received all or part of their higher education at State universities and land-grant institutions. The chairman of this subcommittee is one of the 60 percent of Members of the Senate who were similarly educated, and 49.2 percent of our Representatives attended publicly supported institutions of higher education.

These hearings have brought forth for the record massive and convincing testimony demonstrating the need for both a 4-year public college and a 2-year community college in the District of Columbia. This testimony has provided strong statistical support from every point of view for the need for these institutions. We will not duplicate here the information of the experts. We want to emphasize the impact of this legislation on the community and its citizens. In terms of human development and in terms of busines, industry, and government utilization, the need for publicly supported education beyond high school is better documented in the District of Columbia than anywhere in the country. Without public higher education we continue to ignore one of the chief sources of community wealth, which contemporary economists agree comes more from investment in human capital than from any other single type of investment. Our society cannot prosper in an age of advanced technology and automation without high quality education beyond high school. In this complex modern world 12 years of education are not enough. The denial of a college education to a willing and qualified young person is at once a personal tragedy, and to this city and to our Nation an incalculable loss.


We completely support the judgment of the report of the President's Committee that "the most urgent educational need in the District of Columbia is hope." There is only one way to infuse that hope into our public school system, only one way to provide the motivation which can insure that school will be an elevating and maturing experience that way is to provide opportunities for education beyond high school. This legislation will have a profound influence on the entire structure and spirit of our community. It will open the door at the end of the high school corridor so that high school will no longer be a dead end journey for two-thirds of our children.

When we open that door, we will change the attitude of many children from the time they enter school throughout their educational experience. We will stop the waste of human resources involved in our lost children, children who are lost to themselves, the community, and the Nation.

We are engaged in a campaign to beautify the District of Columbia. This is all to the good. But what of the lives of the children who are going to grow up in that beauty? Are we going to build an alabaster city where citizens are afraid to walk the streets at night for fear of violence from the people who have been lost as responsible citizens because their lives lacked the element of hope? The Congress has activated a war on poverty in our city where the goal is to help people help themselves. Higher education is the essential means to that end.

The Nation's Capital has many special factors in its favor in keep its children in school. We have the highest per capita income in the Nation. We have unexcelled cultural and research resources, libraries, and museums to stimulate and broaden the interests of our children. We are immersed in the intellectual and political ferment of the Federal City and the hub of the free world. Yet, our loss rate for students at the secondary level is the fourth highest in the Nation-higher than 46 of the 50 States. We need the opportunity for continuing education after high school-the door at the end of the high school corridor must be thrown open.

It is hard to imagine a single action the Congress could take which would be more significant in changing the attitudes of the parents of our children-attitudes passed down every day to their children. These parents have learned that without education there is no real hope for improvement of one's position in life, no real opportunity to rise in our society. These parents cannot motivate



their children. But let the Congress open the door at the end of the high school corridor so that it is no longer a dead end, and for both parents and children the whole outlook changes. From first grade forward opportunity for improvement becomes something taken for granted. Parents' words repeated over the years, "when you go to college ***," will change the whole environment from one of stagnation to one of hope. And what of the teachers? Our teachers cannot motivate many of their students today. They cannot promise what does not exist-opportunity. the door at the end of the high school corridor and the world changes. that door and suddenly children whose horizons have been limited by rundown tenements and alley playgrounds find the whole world spread out before them. Senator Morse has emphasized another problem which a public college would solve the problem of the average student who may not realize his full capabilities in high school. He may be a non-grade-oriented student, a "late-bloomer," the "C" student whose potential cannot be determined in high school. He is the average citizen, yet no one can say what leaders may rise from his ranks if the doors are not shut in his face before he has a chance to develop his full capabilities.


Special emphasis in the consideration of this bill must be given to the tremendous need for improved teacher training in the District of Columbia. Our school system needs 1,000 new teachers every year, yet the District of Columbia Teachers College can provide barely one-tenth of that many. A fully staffed liberal arts college with a broad curriculum will upgrade the inspiration, training, and motivation of the teachers it produces and will multiply their numbers. Mr. John Holden spoke earlier in these hearings of the vital need for continuing adult education, and of the 100,000 "functional illiterates," the 100,000 nongraduates of high school, and the 50 percent of nongraduates among the college-trained population in the District of Columbia. The broad continuing education program of a 4-year college will be a dynamic factor in the life of the community, permitting our citizens to review and renew their education, strengthen and update their training, and stay abreast of progress in a world driven by what Walter Lippmann has called "the acceleration of history." It will permit a constant upgrading of our labor force and a continual rebuilding and reenforcing the very foundations of our society.

In conclusion, Mr. Chairman, we would stress the urgency of this legislation. In a real sense the legal doctrine of the last clear chance applies to our educational system every day of every year. Each day we keep the door of higher education closed in the face of our children we build new problems for our city. Each day may constitute a last clear chance for some child who is on the verge of being lost because he or she has no hope of obtaining the education which makes possible the achievement of self-respect and status as a contributing member of the community.

In every State, public higher education is recognized as a basic right of citizenship. What the Nation has granted as a birthright of its citizens the Congress must no longer deny to the children of the Nation's Capital. We must open the door to our children.

Mr. Chairman, we thought it would be appropriate to include in our testimony the statements of some of the high school boys and girls whose lives will be directly affected by this legislation. We have invited young people from five local high schools to join us today and present brief statements of what the opportunity for a public college education would mean to them.

(The following is a reproduction of a pamphlet published by District of Columbia Citizens for Better Public Education.)


Tobias Thompson, 12 years old and living in Washington, D.C. Toby says he wants to build roads and highways someday. His teachers say he's bright enough. But to become a highway engineer he will need college training. Toby is trapped. Why?

Toby's family is poor. On its income there is no money to put aside for college. By the time Toby is 16, about 70 percent of all jobs in the United States will require more than a 12th grade education. By 1970, an eighth grade education will limit Toby to only about 6 percent of all jobs. If Toby does not drop out of school, if he graduates, what can he possibly find to do? Clearly, if Toby is to get out of his trap, he will need more training than he can get in high school. This is more than Toby's problem. It's the District's problem.


Every other community in the United States can offer higher education with public support to those who can't afford the cost of private schools. But not Washington, D.C.

Many parents who are determined to send their children to college will be forced to move out of the District to take advantage of publicly supported State or local colleges available to all U.S. citizens except here.

If Toby had the prospect of free higher education, he would have many choices for planning his life. Without it, he is trapped. And because the poor lack the money to move about at will, Toby's family can't simply move to a city where free higher education is available.

Today, families like Toby's can only hope that the District will offer its people such advanced public educational opportunity-before it's too late for Toby, and for thousands of other children his age.

Today, there is no public college in Washington, D.C., offering general courses without cost to the student.

Tomorrow, there must be such a college.


They all cost more money than a boy like Toby will ever be able to afford. Five large universities in the District all charge tuition: Howard, American, Catholic, George Washington, Georgetown. University of Maryland charges a substantial fee for nonresidents. There are several small colleges but they all charge tuition.

Washington's universities enroll students from all over the Nation and from foreign countries as well. They cannot even absorb all tuition-paying District students who apply.

District of Columbia Teachers College is administered by the District school system. Actually, it's still a "normal school"-situated in two old, small buildings, each partially condemned. Everybody knows it's totally inadequate.


The Higher Education Act of 1965 does not provide funds for establishing new institutions; it merely supplements existing systems.


Scholarships help only the few specially gifted students. Thousands capable of doing satisfactory college work are denied the opportunity because they are unable to pay tuition.


Lacking self-government, Washington cannot solve local problems for itself. Washington is an anomaly-not a State and not part of a State.

Community colleges are usually created by local governments in response to community needs. We have need, but no effective means of meeting it.


Only Congress can do the job.

Four bills have been introduced in the 89th Congress. S. 293 (Morse), S. 1612 (Bible), H.R. 7385 (Multer) and H.R. 4763 (Diggs-withdrawn in favor of the Multer bill). With some differences, these bills propose to establish a 4-year liberal arts college and a 2-year community college in the District.

Only Congress can pass this legislation--but these bills won't be passed without your strong and vocal support.


President Johnson supports the idea. President Kennedy supported the idea. Back in 1795 George Washington supported the idea when he urged establishment of a national university open to all in the "Federal city."

Community groups in and around Washington support the idea. Behind the campaign are churches, parents' groups, unions, both political parties, women's

clubs, service organizations, school administrators, civic associations, and dozens more.

The Bible and Multer bills embody administration policy, based on a report issued in June 1964 by the President's Committee on Public Higher Education in the District. That Committee included leading educational experts from every section of the Nation.


If we act now, Toby will go to college. Thousands of Washington's young citizens-future teachers, engineers, attorneys, technicians, and scientists-will be able to go to college.

They need that college education. We, the community, need it. The Nation needs it.

Urge your Congressmen and Senators to enact legislation establishing a public 4-year liberal arts college and a 2-year community college in the District of Columbia.

Tell your Congressmen and Senators that Washington's children must have more than a high school education to become self-supporting, responsible citizens in the years ahead, when demand for unskilled and semi-skilled workers is in decline.

Remind your Congressmen and Senators that the Nation needs an increasing number of educated and technical citizens to enhance our national future. Write to:

Senator Wayne Morse, chairman, Senate District Subcommittee on Education and Labor, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C.

Representative Thomas G. Abernethy, Subcommittee No. 2, House Committee on Education and Labor, House Office Building, Washington, D.C.


"Higher education for those to whom it was previously inaccessible produces consequences far beyond their own use of it *** generating hope and selfesteem among individuals and groups previously relegated to inferior status. Presenting models of successful escape *** for those still struggling to emerge * * * higher education offers the best hope for *** progress in our cities' battles against poverty, sickness, unemployment, and crime." (Report of the President's Committee on Public Higher Education in the District of Columbia.)

(D.C. Citizens for Better Public Education, Suite 509, 1925 K Street, NW., Washington, D.C. 20006, Phone: 333-8484.)

Senator MORSE. Miss Pinkett, I am particularly pleased that part of your presentation will consist of statements from the students that you have brought with you. I now call upon you to introduce them and have them make any statement they care to.

Miss PINKETT. Thank you, Senator Morse. I would like at this time to introduce the following students, and ask that they be allowed to present their statements.

Sybil Templeman from Spingarn High School had to return to school, so I will submit her statement for the record.



As a citizen of the United States and a resident of the District of Columbia, I have certain responsibilities as a good citizen. Among these responsibilities is that of voting when I become 21. Also, there is the responsibilities of helping in my community and living a good life.

The Government, whether it is the Federal Government or the District Government, has its responsibilities to fulfill. The most important responsibility is that in the field of education. Through education, a country can insure that it has a bright future with capable leaders and responsible citizens.

If everyone who is eligible to vote can and everyone must file an income tax return, why not make it true that everyone who wants to can go to college?

The big factor in any person's life who is trying to go to college is money. I feel that this city has a moral obligation to finance a student's education if he cannot but wants to go to college and is capable of getting college work. If we had a new college, it would be a source of new scholarships. Some people I know will have to work for a year or two so they can be able to go to college. This is the main reason why I feel that a new college should be built now. It should help those who only because of financial reasons will not continue their education. A student should not have to interrupt his education because of financial need.

The country and the government will benefit from these students. Many may become teachers, scientists, or Congressmen.

Why not let it be a two-way street and let the students benefit from the financial aid of the Government?

Miss PINKETT. DeAnna Thompson, Roosevelt High School.
Senator MORSE. Miss Thompson.


Miss THOMPSON. Senator Morse, my name is DeAnna Thompson. It is my belief and the belief of the majority of my fellow students at Roosevelt High School that a publicly supported liberal arts college and a 2-year junior college are niuch needed and reserved institutions for the citizens of the District of Columbia.

In our society, where such great emphasis is placed on higher education, the able but less fortunate students of our area are finding it increasingly difficult to continue their education. With all the scholarships, loans, and Government grants available, a great majority of our finer students are still unable to find a means of achieving their goals. Many of these students would find an answer to their problems in the institutions proposed by this legislation; and, in fact, if such an institution did exist today, it would possibly solve some of my problems and those of other qualified students of this city concerning the furtherance of their education.

It is my belief that such a college would also pay off in our area in a wider sense. It would relieve the already inadequate physical plant of District of Columbia Teachers College of those students who attend because of its comparatively nominal fee. Many such students have very little interest in the profession and in some instances have no real intention of becoming teachers.

Assuming that many of the graduates would remain in the District of Columbia, they would take a more active interest in their community and, as a result, economic, cultural, and social standards in our area would rise.

The social and technological advancement made by the United States during our lifetime is perhaps unparalleled by any other period in the history of the world. The establishment of a publicly supported liberal arts college is imperative if we, the citizens of the District of Columbia, are to be able to share in and to contribute fully to the fruits of our society.

Thank you.

Senator MORSE. I thank you, Miss Thompson.

Being a student, yourself, and therefore in a very good position to testify as to what you think the student opinions and student attitudes are, I would like to point ou to you that during these hearings there

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