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Number and percent of public high school pupils in grade 9 in 1961-62 who graduated in 1964-65, and total 1st time enrollment in higher education fall 1965, by State
1 State-by-State percentages of pupils graduating and not graduating are not entirely comparable because of interstate migration, deaths, shift to or from nonpublic schools, and inductees into Armed Forces. 2 Included in the national total but not in the State figures is an estimated 41,720 "unclassified secondary" pupils who were at the 9th grade level.
PERCENTAGES OF 1963 LOS ANGELES HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES ENROLLED IN HIGHER EDUCATION ANALYZED BY THE MEDIAN FAMILY INCOME OF THEIR RESPECTIVE HIGH SCHOOL
The data below are derived from "Median Family Income of Service Areas of Senior High Schools, 1960 Census," December 23, 1963, Los Angeles Unified School District (compiled from U.S. Bureau of the Census, "U.S. Censuses of Population and Housing: 1960 Census Tracts: Final Report PHC (1)-82," Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1962) and "After High School," Research
Report No. 261, Los Angeles City School Districts Evaluation and Research Section, June 1964.
In the latter study questionnaires were sent to one-fourth of the 25,865 winter and summer graduates; 4,099 respondents represents 64 percent of those sampled. Noteworthy in the table below is the large enrollment in public California institutions of the 2,849 respondents who continued their education. Forty-two percent of those continuing their education were enrolled in the seven colleges of the Los Angeles Junior College District. Another 32 percent attended California State colleges or universities. Of those enrolled in schools of higher education, 91 percent attended institutions in California.
1 Median family income of city of Los Angeles $6,896.
2 Col. 7 includes percent of graduates attending nonaccredited trade, business, and Bible schools.
3 Col. 8 includes percent of those graduates employed, in Armed Forces, housewives, unemployed, on trips, ill, or living at home.
4 Income data for 4 special schools (boys welfare, physically handicapped, and older pupils) were not available.
NOTE.-Cols. 4+5+6+7+8=100 percent.
Senator MORSE. Anything further?
Senator KENNEDY. Thank you.
Senator MORSE. Thank you, gentlemen, very much. You have been very helpful.
I understand now that Reverend Hewlett, Dr. Hansen, and Dr. Paul O. Carr will conduct a panel discussion for the benefit of the committee.
Thank you very much, Dr. Chase and Dr. Huirhead.
I am very proud to have you before this committee again. I have had you before me in connection with other legislation. You are always helpful. You may proceed in your own way.
Reverend Hewlett, will you proceed. I have scanned your statement and I think it is an excellent statement, but I want you to present it for the hearing record.
STATEMENT OF REV. EVERETT A. HEWLETT, CHAIRMAN, COMMITTEE ON LEGISLATION, BOARD OF EDUCATION; ACCOMPANIED BY DR. CARL F. HANSEN, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS
Reverend HEWLETT. Thank you very much, Mr. Senator.
On behalf of the Board of Education, may I express just a word of appreciation to you for your work in the interest of the city of Washington and of the Nation in the area of education and public welfare. Public higher education in the District of Columbia
Senator MORSE. These things are done when we all work together. Reverend HEWLETT. Thank you, sir. It is your leadership to which I was referring.
Public higher education in the District of Columbia has become by virtue of technological development a necessity to our national existence. The very existence of this city as the seat of National Government is threatened by a continued absence of public higher education. Many citizens in Washington know the stultifying frustrations of denied opportunities for self-improvement. There are depraved characters who thrive upon the ignorant and poverty-ridden. Such conditions will continue to threaten the social and cultural well-being of this city without public higher education. In this time of a knowledge explosion the intellectual life of the city is without roots and doomed to death should we continue without public general higher education.
The Board of Education for several years has made expressions of its awareness of the need for public higher education. The Board of Education considers public higher education an essential goal and an indispensable adjunct of a good elementary and secondary school
Dating back to the Strayer report of 1949 the need for public higher education in Washington has been documented by innumerable studies of experts in Government and education.
The need for a publicly supported community college and for a 4-year college of arts and sciences in the District of Columbia was brought into sharp focus by the report of the President's Committee on Public Higher Education in the District of Columbia. The Board of Education has long been aware of the unfilled needs of the com
munity for postsecondary school education at public expense and has cooperated willingly with those who have been interested in obtaining objective evidence to support the conclusions of this committee.
May I report to you at this time the results of a recent survey (January-February 1966) of the college intentions of seniors in the public high schools of the District of Columbia. This survey was conducted by the Superintendent of Schools and his staff.
The responses of these seniors give convincing evidence of the need for each of the two colleges now. Of the 3,891 seniors who responded, 2,540 plan to continue their education in a college or university next year, another 771 are undecided, and 580 do not plan to continue their education beyond the secondary school level.* If the public community college and the public 4-year college of arts and sciences are established, 2,586 of the seniors indicated that they would be interested in attending one of these institutions. A total of 1,711 indicated that they would apply for admission to one of the institutions if they were unable to attend the college or university of their choice next year. Approximately 55 percent indicated an interest in curriculums that would be offered in the 4-year college and the other 45 percent are interested in curriculums leading to the associate in arts degree.
In reply to the question on the payment of tuition, 1,204 of the students indicated that they would be unable to pay tuition in the amount of $525, the lowest tuition rate in the District. Tuition in the privately controlled colleges and universities in the District of Columbia ranges from $525 to $1,400 per year for full-time undergraduate students.
The result of this survey and of an earlier one conducted in 1962 indicates that hundreds of students would be interested in attending a public community college, if one were available. The President's Committee predicted an annual entering class of about 1,400 students during the early years of the community college. Experience in other communities would indicate that this estimate of possible enrollment is a conservative one and that the number of students enrolled will grow steadily if curriculums in which the students are interested are available.
The Cuyahoga Community College in Cleveland, Ohio, for example, opened for instruction in September 1963. The initial enrollment of this community college exceeded 3,000 students and the enrollment of this institution has more than tripled in 2 years. This year, more than 10,000 students attended classes in this community college located in a large metropolitan area. Plans are now being completed to accommodate more than 15,000 students by the fall of 1968.
Senator MORSE. You do not cite that as an exception either, do you? Reverend HEWLETT. No, sir; but we would think almost a typical example.
In September 1965, there were 771 community or junior colleges in the United States. Of this total, 503 were public colleges and 268 were independent or church-related institutions. The enrollment in these colleges for the fall of 1965 was 1,292,753, establishing a record yearly increase of 22.6 percent over 1964 registrations of 1,050,000. Some of this increase in enrollment was due to the opening of 50 new institutions, but the densely populated States of California, Michigan,
New York, and Pennsylvania accounted for an increase in junior college population of more than 100,000 students. This present high rate of growth in numbers of institutions and in enrollments is expected by the American Association of Junior Colleges to continue for the foreseeable future. At least 30 or 40 new institutions are expected to open in September of this year.
The need for such an institution in the District of Columbia is selfevident. The public high schools (academic and vocational) in the District of Columbia graduate between 4,000 and 5,000 students each year and private and parochial schools graduate hundreds of others. Publicly supported higher education is denied to all of these young people except the small minority of graduates who wish to prepare for careers in teaching and who meet the entrance requirements of the Teachers College. The existence of several private institutions of higher education in the area does not meet the need. The new Oakland Community College in Michigan, for example, enrolled 3,284 students in an area that is well-laced with 4-year colleges and universities. Lake Community College in Eugene, Oreg., opened with 2,891 students.
Senator MORSE. May I interrupt you a moment to point out a very important fact? You mentioned Lake Community College but there are many like it elsewhere in the country. Do not forget Eugene, Oreg., is the site of the University of Oregon. We have a State university in the same area where we have this community college of 2,891 students, because the community college provided educational opportunity for students that would be unable to take advantage of the State university. And there you have two great public institutions in the same area. They are not beginning to meet the needs of the students of our State. We are increasing our community colleges throughout the entire State, and that is why I am always at a little loss to understand the argument that is made here in the District of Columbia that, because you have so many private institutions that it ought to cause us to slow up with the public institutions. But what we are finding in order to meet that statistic that I mentioned earlier this morning, as far as answering those knocks on the doors of colleges of this country of qualified students, is that you are just going to have to provide the additional facilities, even in the areas where you already have public institutions.
Reverend HEWLETT. Sir, I think this would reflect back to the question that Senator Kennedy was asking a while ago, too.
It is my understanding that, for instance, in New York City, the public institutions of higher education really provide a great deal of stimulus for the private institutions and that, instead of lowering educational standards, it is really the public institutions that give the motivation and put the cutting edge on educational standards in New York City.
The two junior colleges in Maricopa County, Ariz., enrolled 2,000 and 1,369 students. The other junior college in the county, in Phoenix, has over 16,000 students.
California has over 80 junior colleges, New York has 67, Pennsylvania has 43, and Michigan has 23. In Texas, 61,938 students are enrolled in 47 institutions, and Florida's 27 junior colleges boast of an enrollment of 61,667. All of these States are plentifully supplied with 4-year colleges and universities, both private and public.