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from 10 NIH institutes to conduct cooperative research activities in 10

FIC has also provided support

countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. for 17 scientists from these regions to conduct research in 7 institutes of the NIH. An example is the support provided for a Czechoslovakian scientist to work in the laboratory of an NIH Nobel Laureate to develop an understanding of an epidemic of spongiform encephalopathy in her native country, and its relationship to similar devastating neurological diseases such as CreuzfeldtJacob (CJD) Disease. This collaboration appears to have led to the discovery of a genetic defect in CJD victims. Based on the high level of interest in these two regional initiatives, it is expected that activities will greatly expand in Fiscal Years 1991 and 1992.

The Center employs a variety of fellowship and exchange programs that support scientists at every level of experience to promote the interchange of new ideas and scientific knowledge. The research of these FIC-supported scientists spans the breadth of biomedical investigation. Research discoveries that have been made in the fields of cancer, neurobiology, diabetes, and AIDS illustrate this diversity.

Our Senior International Fellowship (SIF) program supports experienced American scientists to conduct research overseas with foreign colleagues. Since 1975, the SIF program has funded nearly 700 U.S. scientists; in Fiscal Years 1991 and 1992, the Center expects to award fellowships to 87 U.S. investigators.

o An American scientist at the Imperial College in London has
identified genes that may play an important role in

carcinogenesis, especially in a certain subgroup of susceptible
people. Through an analysis of genetic mechanisms which control
chromosome division, he identified genes responsible for
maintaining normal cell division. Such knowledge will be
important in developing new strategies for prevention or
treatment in susceptible persons.

o An American scientist at the Institute for Cancer Research in
London has studied a particular oncogene associated with the
malignant transformation of normal cells. He found that this
oncogene alters the structure of regulatory proteins which

control normal cell division. By identifying such individual

steps in carcinogenesis, more specific and effective therapies

can be developed.

Since 1958, FIC's International Research Fellowships (IRF) have been awarded to more than 2,700 scientists from over 50 developed and developing countries. In Fiscal Years 1991 and 1992, FIC plans to fund 190 new IRF awards to applicants to conduct research in laboratories in more than 20 states. In addition, during this same period, FIC expects to fund second year awards for 108 IRFS who began their fellowships in Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991. Research funded through this program is finding solutions to problems that affect mankind.

o Two foreign scientists are working on the cause of Alzheimer's
disease, an increasingly important public health problem due to
the increase in life expectancy of the world's population.
of the characteristic pathological changes in the brain of a
patient with Alzheimer's disease is the occurrence of multiple
areas of nerve degeneration containing an abnormal protein
called amyloid. These foreign scientists are working on the
cause of the amyloid formation. Such basic studies are needed
to develop methods of treatment and prevention.

o A Hungarian scientist at the Joslin Diabetes Center of Harvard
University has conducted studies on human cell receptors for
insulin. These receptors are the passage ways through which
insulin gains entry into the cell. It is within the cell that
insulin has an influence on the metabolism of sugars.
For this
reason this scientist is seeking ways to hasten the entry of
insulin by modifying the insulin receptors--to "widen the
passage ways", so to speak. This sort of research may open up
the prospect of new opportunities for the treatment of diabetes.

Much is expected of FIC's Scholars-in-Residence who represent the best

the world has to offer in biomedical research. Eight to ten Scholars work at the NIH at any one time. A Norwegian Scholar is internationally known for his pioneering research on fatty acid metabolism and the role of lipids in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. As a Fogarty Scholar he plans studies


with NCI investigators on the relationship between dietary nutrients and

These efforts will include research on the role of retinoids--vitamin A and related compounds--on cell growth. Such studies may lead to new strategies for cancer therapy.

The FIC AIDS research and fellowship training programs, mandated by Congress, have been established in 11 U.S. universities. year of operation, they have trained epidemiologists, postdoctoral scientists, and clinical investigators from 44 countries primarily in the developing world. By the end of this fiscal year, 90 scientists will have received a graduate degree in public health or science, and 50 will have received postdoctoral research training. Approximately 3,500 health care workers will have taken U.S. supervised short-term courses in their own country in epidemiology and laboratory procedures. Through these efforts these countries can and are joining with us in international cooperation in AIDS research.

Under this AIDS training program two scientists from Uganda are in advanced training at Case Western Reserve University. One scientist is conducting research on the influence of the AIDS epidemic on the occurrence of tuberculosis (TB). TB has become a major complication in AIDS patients in all parts of the world including the United States. New strategies must be developed to combat this double threat. The other scientist is examining the influence of protein-energy-malnutrition (PEM) on HIV infection in infants and young children. The seriousness of PEM as a common problem in Africa is compounded by the alarming increase in AIDS in infants and young children. This research should lead to new strategies for nutrition therapy in AIDS


infected infants.

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The Fogarty Center plays a major role within the NIH in facilitating scientific cooperation between NIH scientists and those of other countries of the world. Staff of the Center provide policy guidance and direction, assist in the development and management of bilateral and multilateral biomedical agreements, programs and initiatives, and analyze international health and biomedical issues to support NIH, Departmental, and Administration decision makers. The Center also links the NIH with other international components of the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of State, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, foreign scientific

institutions, multilateral organizations and non-governmental bodies concerned with international health and biomedical research. FIC currently administers NIH participation in 73 formal biomedical agreements with 39 countries.

To illustrate our role in providing policy guidance and technical support, in FY 1990 I was appointed Vice Chairman of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology Committee on International Science, Engineering and Technology, and Chairman of its Subcommittee on Cooperation with Industrialized Countries. These bodies provide governmentwide policy guidance on international S&T issues and serve as mechanisms for interagency planning and coordination. FIC staff led committee activities to assess the effects of European economic integration on science and technology relations with the U.S. and provided guidance for the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy in this critical area. As a result of these efforts, the United States has formed a Joint Consultative Group with the Commission of the European Economic Community which is chaired on the U.S. side by the Science Advisor to the President.

In conclusion, the budget request before you will enable the Fogarty Center to significantly enhance its ability to promote international cooperation in the biomedical sciences for the benefit of all mankind. We will be able to expand research in the neurosciences as our contribution to the "Decade of the Brain," as well as expand activities under our two regional


We stand on the threshold of a rapidly changing world that offers new opportunities for scientific collaboration and the exchange of

ideas. Through our expanded outreach efforts, we can bring home to the American people the best dividends that derive from medical research wherever it occurs in the world--better health for all.

Our 1992 budget request is $19,922.00.

to answer any questions you may have.

Mr. Chairman, I will be pleased

Thank you.

Date & Place of Birth:





Professional History:





1967-1968 1968-1971












November 8, 1934.





Honors and Awards:

Saginaw, Michigan

B.A., Rice University
Ph.D., Yale University

Postdoctoral, Institut für

Strahlenbiologie, Karlsruhe, Germany
Postdoctoral, University of California,

Research Assistant, Biophysics Department, Yale

Predoctoral Fellow, National Cancer Institute,
Biophysics Department, Yale University.

Research Associate, Institut für Strahlenbiologie,
Karlsruhe, Germany.

Instructor, Department of Medical Physics,
University of California, Berkeley.

Research Biophysicist, University of California,

Laboratory Director, National Science Foundation
Summer Institute in Radiobiology, University of
California, Berkeley.

Grants Associate, National Institutes of Health.
Budget Examiner, Office of Management and Budget,
Executive Office of the President.

Staff Member, Council on Environmental Quality,
Executive Office of the President.

Associate Director for Interagency Programs,
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences,

Chief, International Coordination and Liaison
Branch, Fogarty International Center, NIH.
Science Attache and PHS International Health
Representative, U.S. Embassy, New Delhi, India.
Director, Fogarty International Center, National
Institutes of Health

PHS Superior Service Award

Outstanding Performance Ratings

Merit Performance Awards

NIH Merit Award

Secretary DHHS Certificate of Appreciation

NASA Research Fellowship, University of California,

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