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advantages of these cells would be their ability to activate and detoxify chemical substances and their ability to exhibit easily measurable biochemical responses. While these efforts should reduce our dependence on animals, there is considerable scientific doubt about the prospects for total replacement of mammalian systems for toxicologic studies in the foreseeable future.

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

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Question. Last year the Committee expressed concern about the health effects of constant exposure to low radiation emitting from such sources electric blankets and power lines. Tell us the progress you are making on the research in this area and how it is coordinated with work funded by the Environmental Protection Agency.

Answer. The NIEHS has a number of activities which address the concerns raised about the health effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by sources such as power lines. In September 1990, the Institute held a planning conference with participation by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute for Neurologic disorders and Stroke, the Electric Power Research Institute, and selected principal investigators. This meeting provided a direction for a program announcement planned for May 1991. The focus of this announcement is on the biological effects and basic mechanisms of low frequency EMF. In addition, this announcement encourages ,investigators to develop improved exposure systems for EMF studies.

In February of this year, the NIEHS hosted a workshop entitled "Recent Developments on the Health Consequences and clinical Applications of Low Frequency Electromagnetic fields." This workshop helped to provide an awareness of the methodological problems encountered in conducting studies on EMF health effects, and provided an overview of the status of EMF research.

In FY 1991 the NIEHS funded three new grants on EMF health effects. Two of the grants are examining the effects of EMF at the cellular level, and the other grant is developing methodologies for precisely measuring exposures to low frequency radiation.

The NTP has been requested by the Department of Energy (DOE), the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, and the utilities industries to evaluate the toxic and carcinogenic potential of EMF in laboratory animals. The nomination was approved by the NTP. Executive Committee which is comprised of nine Federal Agency Heads including the Administrator, EPA.

The study design has been reviewed and approved by many expert scientists, including those from the EPA. No comparable studies have been planned by the EPA, DOE, or other Federal agencies. The first studies on the reproductive effects and possible carcinogenicity of 60 Hz magnetic fields will begin this year.

NEW NORTH CAMPUS BUILDING

Question. For a number of years the Committee has been aware of your Institute's interest in constructing a new building to replace your North Campus building in Research Triangle Park. I understand the lease on your existing building expires in May and that you are anticipating the costs of improvement for safety and air handling plus inflation will increase the rental costs by up to 50 percent at renewal time. This seems to make the option of building even more cost effective.

We have already paid for the architectural and engineering work of the new building, which I believe was finished last November. What is the shelf life of this work?

Answer.

If we The plans that we now have will be good until July 1992. haven't received a building permit by that time we would have to update the design to meet new building code requirements at a cost of approximately $1 million,

QUESTIONS SUBMITTTED BY SENATOR ARLEN SPECTER

HEALTH EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

Question. Dr. Hoel, earlier today I raised a question with Dr. Broder regarding the health effects of electromagnetic fields. As you may have heard, the residents of South Scranton are deeply concerned over the high voltage power lines which run through their community, and reports of an elevated incidence of cancer. Has the Institute supported studies on this matter?

Answer. Yes, the Institute began several projects in FY 1991 which address the concerns raised about the health effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by sources such as power lines. Three new grants were funded which deal with the effects of EMF at the cellular level and with developing methodologies for precisely measuring exposures to low frequency radiation. NIEHS' National Toxicology Program (NTP) has begun studies on the reproductive effects and possible carcinogenicity of 60 Hz magnetic fields.

Question. Should a health effects study be done and what role could the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences play in the matter?

Answer. Health effects studies should certainly be done. The Institute held a planning conference in September 1990 with participation by the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute for Neurologic disorders and Stroke, the Electric Power Research Institute, and selected principal investigators. The focus of the conference was on the biological effects and basic mechanisms of low frequency EMF. Also, the Department of Energy, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissions, and the utilities industries have requested the NTP to evaluate the toxic and carcinogenic potential of EMF in laboratory animals.

FOGARTY INTERNATIONAL CENTER

STATEMENT OF DR. PHILIP SCHAMBRA, DIRECTOR

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BUDGET REQUEST Senator HARKIN. Dr. Schambra, the committee has your request of $19.9 million, which is $13.7 million more than last year.

We are familiar with your programs to support visits of foreign scientists to the United States and the placement of U.S. scientists overseas. The committee looks forward to hearing about your expanding Eastern European and Latin American initiatives.

Welcome and please proceed with your statement.
Dr. SCHAMBRA. Thank you, Senator.

Senator, I will be even briefer than the prepared summary of my opening statement, both of which I would like to submit 'for the record with your permission.

Senator HARKIN. Certainly.

Dr. SCHAMBRA. Mr. Chairman, I think it is clear that we live in a time of enormous changes and of enormous challenges and opportunities. The countries of central and Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union have opened up and our scientists have responded. We have much to give and much to learn in the exchanges which are taking place and growing day by day aided by our Eastern European initiative which the Congress has so strongly supported. I would be pleased to tell you more about what we are doing under that initiative later on in response to a question or for the record, if you wish.

Likewise, the importance of collaborating with scientists and institutions in developing countries is becoming increasingly clear. Not only must these countries deal with old, unconquered diseases such as malaria and cholera—and as you know from the papers right now, cholera is killing hundreds of people in South America even today-but also the poorer regions of the world are often the source of new diseases such as AIDS which threaten the entire world.

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AIDS TRAINING PROGRAM Our international AIDS training programs, now in their third year, constitute one of the most important responses by the U.S. Government to addressing the AIDS problem by helping developing countries participate in research on this disease and eventually participate in the field trials of vaccines now under development in the NIH and elsewhere.

Because of the threat which diseases in developing countries represent not only to the people of these countries, but also to the people

of the United States, we began our Latin American initiative last year to expand cooperation between biomedical scientists of

this hemisphere. And I would be happy also to tell you more about what we are doing under this initiative.

Finally, we continue our efforts to bring together the scientists from the leading laboratories of the United States and those in Western Europe, Japan, and other developed countries, among the best and brightest in the world. And I might say, Mr. Chairman, that that includes in recent years three bright young scientists from abroad who have gone to institutions in Iowa and four leading Iowan scientists who went to different places around the world, and all of these to work on such problems as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease, among others.

PREPARED STATEMENT

Senator, with our 1992 budget request of $19,922,000, I expect that the Fogarty Center will not only continue, but expand its critically important role in the world's No. 1 goal, which is better health for all.

I would be pleased to respond to any questions. [The statement follows:)

STATEMENT OF DR. PHILIP SCHAMBRA

The global biomedical research community is being influenced increasingly

by a rapidly changing world--scientifically, politically, and economically.

The emergence of democratic governments in Central and Eastern Europe and

Latin America, the collective decision by the countries of Western Europe to

unify their economies, and the movement by many former socialistic societies

toward a free market have provided new challenges and new opportunities for

scientists and institutions dedicated to biomedical research.

These events

have stimulated a climate of greater openness on the part of scientists

throughout the world and have made possible extraordinary opportunities for

scientific collaboration.

The worldwide pattern of diseases threatening human well-being is

continually changing.

The programs of the Fogarty International Center weave

together tightly to form a comprehensive yet flexible response to these

challenges.

During FY 1990, FIC programs increased the number of

collaborating scientists worldwide, and enabled newfound discoveries to be

discussed and studies to be undertaken in laboratories in remote areas of the

world. Through continuing such combined and collaborative efforts the nature

of these diseases can be understood and their incidence reduced.

It is the mission of the Center to stimulate and enhance this

collaboration at all levels--scientist-to-scientist, institution-to

institution, and nation-to-nation.

We can count a number of successes toward

this objective this past year.

We have begun new initiatives in international

cooperation that take advantage of the improved political climate in Latin

America and Eastern Europe.

We are working closely with the NINDS to develop

a program of cooperation on international aspects of the "Decade of the

Brain," including joint support for a targeted fellowship program, as well as

international workshops and conferences.

The Fogarty Center's ability to marshall NIH research expertise in

response to changing world conditions are exemplified by its two regional

initiatives in Latin America and the Caribbean, and Central and Eastern

Europe, which were implemented in FY 1990.

To date FIC has provided support

for 18 scientists from 6 NIH institutes to conduct cooperative research

activities in 5 countries in Central and Eastern Europe; and for 20 scientists

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