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in fiscal 1992 at a level of $2.0 million.

Estimated figures for the Science Education Program Five-Year Budget Plan are listed in the table below.

National Institutes of Health Life Sciences Education Program Five-Year Budget Plan*

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* Plan for activities under the Office of Science Policy and
Legislation; excludes NIH Extramural training, fellowship
and apprenticeship programs (e.g., MHSSRAP, NRSA,
MARC/HURT) and Intramural Office of Education programs.


Over the years, the traditional NIH research apprenticeship, fellowship and traineeship programs have been well funded. This support, however, has not extended to the development and implementation of new and innovative programs in science education at the pre-school through undergraduate levels. NIH science education program was initiated to address this need. Many of the activities developed as a part of the program correspond closely to the actions recommended in the Final Report of the Task Force on Women, Minorities and the Handicapped in Science and Technology, "Changing America: New Face of Science and Engineering, " and the issue of the participation of under- represented groups is given special emphasis throughout these programs.


In FY 1991 NIH is piloting a number of new programs that will be expanded in FY 1992 if they prove successful. These include:

ADAMHA/NIH Science. Education Partnership Awards (SEPA).
These awards support the development of model programs that
join working scientists and educators in enhancing
precollege science education and public understanding of
science, e.g., that related to addictive disorders and
mental illness, and in encouraging young people to enter
careers in these areas. SEPA is designed to involve
scientists in the development of science education programs
for K-12 students and for the general population.
Partnerships may involve business and industry, formal and
informal educational institutes, professional and scientific
societies, and research institutions.

The Science Alliance. This program will establish alliances between PHS scientists and elementary school educators to increase enthusiasm for science among teachers and students, increase teachers' familiarity with science curricula and materials, integrate science with other subjects, identify talented young people, challenge PHS staff, and demonstrate PHS's commitment to science education. Paired with an elementary school, a team of scientists would participate in

science classes, provide role models for students, and generate enthusiasm for science in the classroom. The pilot program is estimated to cost $5,000.

The following programs are currently being developed for implementation in future years:

Biomedical Research Advancement: Saturday Scholars (BRASS): This program will provide an opportunity each year for 48 junior and senior high students in the DC metropolitan area to participate in an 8 week Saturday morning science program held on the NIH campus and taught by NIH scientists. The program will consist of 2 to 3 hour sessions which will include didactic seminars, hands on laboratory experiences, field trips, and lectures on topics in the biomedical/life sciences.

AREA Grant Support for Science Teachers. This proposed program is being designed to enhance the expertise of high school teachers by providing funds for them to participate in research being done at Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) grant institutions, i.e., institutions that historically have not received major extramural support. Funds would cover the average salary for a junior high or high school science teacher for 120 days (about $4,000), plus administration costs.

NIH/IHS Extern Assignment: This program will provide
biomedical research extern sites for 5 to 10 Indian Health
Service scholarship students. This will allow these
students to have an opportunity to work in an actual
research setting. It is hoped that through this experience,
the students will decide to pursue careers in the biomedical

Older Americans Program: This program would use the talents
of older Americans with extensive experience in the
biomedical and behavioral sciences to enrich pre-college
science education programs. Retired scientists would be
recruited to assist in science classroom activities and
serve as role models and mentors to interested students.
(Legislative authority required.)

In FY 1991, NIH has allocated $2.0 million from the Director's Discretionary Fund for support of the Science Education Partnership Awards (SEPA). In addition, the Office of Science Policy and Legislation has earmarked approximately $200,000 for science education activities. These activities include NIH participation in the FCCSET Committee for Education and Human Resources (CEHR), the PHS Life Sciences Education and Science Literacy Board activities--including the National Conference, and support for a number of smaller programs like the Science Alliance.

Fiscal 1992 marks the first year that NIH will have a specific allocation for science education within the Office of the Director's budget. The fiscal year 1992 Appropriation Request provides for $2 million to support the NIH Science Education Program.


Question. If an additional $5,000,000 were provided in FY 1992 for Science Education, how would the NIH utilize these funds?

Answer. If an additional $5 million were made available for FY 1992, NIH would use, it to expand its support of the Science Education Partnership Awards (SEPA), to fully implement the AREA Grant Support for Science Teachers program and to fund the implementation of the strategies and action plan developed at the National Conference.

The initial response to the SEPA program has been overwhelming. The program was announced in February of this year and we have already received close to 300 letters of intent from applicants. If additional funds are available, they would be used to support and expand these grants in 1992. The types of activities funded would include:

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Projects improving the scientific knowledge base of current and prospective precollege teachers so that current concepts in health sciences can be integrated into course content, and teachers' instructional skills can be enhanced.

The development of innovative materials, techniques
and/or curricula consistent with the purposes of this
program in areas where there is a demonstrated lack of
suitable materials and a need for scientific advice.

Programs that provide laboratory experiences in the biological sciences for students from the kindergarten through the twelfth grade. These programs may be in formal school settings or in community settings. Programs that provide for linkages among PHS-funded scientists and local community and school programs which provide for continued contact/mentoring to encourage pursuit of science careers are particularly desirable.

Activities which provide training, resources, and
support to encourage and prepare individual
biomedical/behavioral scientists to become involved in
projects to educate the general public about science,
including those aimed at educating parents and their
children. These would include speaking to students,
adults, teachers, or organizations in an informal but
instructive manner in suitable public places where
biological/behavioral science might be presented în a
captivating way to the lay public.

The AREA Grant Support for Science Teachers program will enhance the expertise of high school science teachers by providing funds for them to participate in research being done at Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) grant institutions, i.e., institutions that historically have not received major extramural support. Additional funds would be

used to fully develop the program and expand the number of supplements available nationwide.

As was mentioned, the PHS National Conference will bring together experts from across the education community, Federal Government, and private industry to help develop strategies and a long range plan for PHS involvement in science education. The National Institutes of Health, which is providing a large portion of the funding for the conference, will devote any additional available funds to implementing these recommendations.




Senator HARKIN. We will call up all the individual directors here, Dr. Broder at the National Cancer Institute; Dr. Lenfant, Heart, Lung, and Blood; Dr. Tony Fauci with Allergy and Infectious Diseases; and Dr. Harald Löe, National Institute of Dental Research. It is my intent to just simply start in the order in which I have it here.

I will start with Dr. Broder, National Cancer Institute. Dr. Broder, the committee has your budget request for $1.8 billion, which is about 5 percent more than last year. I note that more than one-half of your proposed growth for 1992 is for research project grants, while your request for centers and training is essentially flat with a loss of two of your basic research centers. So, Dr. Broder, could you please give us a brief statement in support of your request, as well as any scientific highlights that you would care to make?


Dr. BRODER. Thank you very much. Sir, it is my great honor to be here.

This year has been marked by high scientific achievement for the National Cancer Program. The National Cancer Institute [NCI] has pioneered methods of rapid communication about advances in clinical research and continues to disseminate state-of-the-art information in the United States and throughout the world. New cancer drugs have been developed and new prevention strategies using vitamin derivatives have proven effective.

Scientists from NCI and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute have pioneered gene treatment studies. Last year, studies successfully traced the activity of new genes in reinfused cells into patients, and a related study introduced gene therapy for an extremely unusual but important inherited immune system disorder caused by the absence of the enzyme adenosine deaminase, called ADA. Preliminary results in the first patient, a 4-year-old girl, suggested her immune function has, in fact, improved and, therefore, we would declare this the first successful, or at least experimentally successful, application of genetic engineering in the form of gene transfer therapy. The results are still preliminary and they cannot be taken to be a final answer, but we do believe that this is an important advance.

Most recently two patients with melanoma, a form of skin cancer that is quite virulent and often lethal, were treated with special

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