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Before being named Chairperson, Mrs. Parrino was a Peer Reviewer for the U.S. Department of Education, Rehabilitation Services Administration, where she reviewed, evaluated, and commented on grant applications at the federal and state levels. In 1982, Mrs. Parrino was a feature writer for the Arthritis Foundation of New York, as well as an editor for Parke-Davis, /Warner Lambert and Eli Lilly. Mrs. Parrino, in 1979, became the Founder and Director of the Office for the Disabled, Towns of Ossining/Briarcliff Manor, New York.

Additionally, Mrs. Parrino has more than 25 years experience serving on boards, councils, commissions, committees and task forces at the federal, state, regional and local levels as an expert witness, community leader, organizer and planner, lobbyist.


Mrs. Parrino has recently returned from Helsinki, Finland, where she had been invited to participate in The Meeting of Experts on Alternative Ways to Mark the End of the United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons. She also served as an American Representative to the United Nations and UNICEF for the International Year of Disabled Persons.

Sandra Swift Parrino graduated from Briarcliff College with an A.B. in History, and completed courses at Bennett College, GuildHall School in London, and the Yale School of Languages.

Mrs. Parrino is married and has three children, two with disabilities. She resides in Briarcliff Manor, New York and was born in New Haven, Connecticut.


John A. Gannon, of Washington, D.C., is the founder of John A. Gannon and Associated. His firm has offices in Columbus and Cleveland, Ohio; Denver, Colorado; and Washington, D.C.


A working fire fighter for more than 30 years, Gannon was an active leader of the IAFF's (International Association of Fire Fighters) Local 93. Starting as a member of the local IAFF's committee, he eventually became its president, a position he held for 10 years before being elected to national office.

In September 1988, Mr. Gannon was elected President Emeritus of the IAFF. He had served as president of the 170,000 member organization since 1980. As president, he successfully helped the organization overcome an intense financial crisis.

Under Mr. Gannon's leadership, the IAFF greatly expanded its role in matters of occupational safety and health. Concerned about the hazards of the profession, he guided and directed a series of programs designed to develop greater safety and health protection. One such program involved sponsoring research on safer garments and equipment for fire fighters. Mr. Gannon also fostered the development of the IAFF Burn Foundation which raises funds for research on the care of burn victims.

In 1985, the Metropolitan General Hospital in Mr. Gannon's hometown of Cleveland, dedicated a John A.

Gannon Burn and Trauma Center in recognition of his support for the hospital and his personal campaign to induce the hospital to establish a specialized burn department.

Mr. Gannon was elected vice president of the AFL-CIO, to which the IAFF is affiliated. Within the AFL-CIO, he is vice president of the Public Employee Department. On the Executive Council, he is a member of several specialized committees. He serves on the board of the National Joint Council of Fire Service Organizations, and in 1982 he served as its chairman. He is also a member of the board of the Muscular Dystrophy Association.

Mr. Gannon attended Miami University in Ohio and Glasgow University in Scotland, and he also studied at BaldwinWallace College and Cleveland State University.


The National Council was fortunate in selecting Ethel D. Briggs as the Executive Director. In her seven years at the National Council, Ms. Briggs served in several position, which included: the Acting Executive Director; the Deputy Executive Director; and the Director of Adult Services.

Previously Ms. Briggs was Chief of the Office of Staff Development and Training for the Washington, D.C., Rehabilitation Services Administration. Her prior experience included employment as a rehabilitation counselor supervisor, vocational rehabilitation counselor and part-time college instructor. Ethel D. Briggs, a long-time advocate of people with disabilities, graduated from North Carolina Central University and holds a master's degree in counseling from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She has also been recognized by Dollar & Sense Magazine, as One of the Top 100 African American Business and Professional Women of 1989. In addition, Ms. Briggs has also been recognized in Outstanding Women in America in 1976 and by Who's Who in American Colleges and Universities in 1971.


Senator HARKIN. Ms. Parrino, thank you very much for your testimony and for your kind words. I just want to reciprocate and say thanks you to you personally for leading the charge on this, on getting the ADA formulated several years ago. I remember the first meeting we had in then Senator Weicker's office, and that must have been about, what, 1988?

Ms. PARRINO. In 1987.

Senator HARKIN. In 1987?

Senator HARKIN. I must admit that at the time I thought that, well, maybe some day we might get it through. I did not know exactly when. But through your effort-I just want to thank you, the Board, and all the people on the National Council for all you have done. Just outstanding work, and I really appreciate it.

Ms. PARRINO. We appreciate it.

Senator HARKIN. And I know I can speak for all the members of the subcommittee in saying that.

Ms. PARRINO. Thank you.

Senator HARKIN. Most of the questions that I have I will submit to you in writing. We have some budget questions and things like that, and we will not get into all that now, but we will send those

down to you in writing. But just a couple things I wanted to cover with you.

You know, we had a lot of problems as the bill went through with businesses being concerned about the ADA and the impact on business, and I can understand that. I mean, they did not really know what it meant and what it might cost, especially for small businesses and that kind of thing. It became clear to me, obviously, that a lot of businesses are going to require some technical assistance, some advice, and consultation in complying with ADA.

Let me just ask for the record, what, if any, technical assistance in complying with ADA is the National Council offering or providing to businesses or other entities affected by the Disabilities Act?

Ms. PARRINO. Well, at the moment we will focus on this "ADA Watch." And I think it will assist small business, because we intend to point out some of the ways that people are complying in implementing the law with success. And we think that that will serve as a model to other people who perhaps do not know quite what to do about it or do not know how to implement the law.

Senator HARKIN. I appreciate that because, you know, I am quite familiar with the "Helsinki Watch." When I was in the House I was on the first "Helsinki Watch" commission. And obviously, that was more of a body that looked at those that were not living up to the Helsinki

Ms. PARRINO. That is right.

Senator HARKIN. So it was kind of confrontational. You looked at the "ADA Watch" as perhaps doing some of that, but also in examining, let us say, ways in which businesses have complied, and spreading these out so others would know about it.

Ms. PARRINO. Yes; we have taken the name from these watches, but whereas, as you say, they look at the violations and focus on the violations, we would really like to focus on just the opposite, on the successes taking place.

Senator HARKIN. Let me ask you this. Are businesses contacting you yet at all about how to comply? Are you getting any incoming requests?

Ms. PARRINO. Mr. Gannon will comment on that.

Mr. GANNON. Senator, our office is being called and, as a matter of fact, the Chamber of Commerce in Dayton, OH, in April is having a seminar in which we will be attending. Also, Cornell University, we had 4 days up there where we expressed and learned the concerns of small businesses in the country. So we are doing the best we can at addressing the problem or spreading the word, if you will.

Senator HARKIN. The biggest worry, obviously, is not employment, because we have carved that out, but in the public accommodations section.

Ms. PARRINO. That is right.

Senator HARKIN. This is where small businesses are going to need some help, and I am wondering just who they are going to go to and if you are going to-obviously, they have not started yet, because it has not hit yet. But when it hits next year, that is when your volume of incoming fire and incoming mail and calls are really going to increase. Have you anticipated that in your budget request?

Ms. BRIGGS. Yes; we did project an increase in the area of communications to accommodate calls, mailings, et cetera.

Senator HARKIN. I noticed your increase in the communications budget, but there was not much already there to show for that. And that is what this is, anticipating that. I think that is good. You have not been here for the hearings I have had the last couple of years and over the last couple of days and weeks, but I have been focusing on the Centers for Disease Control. They run a primary and secondary disabilities prevention program, and you have been very critical to the development and growth of that program in the primary and then in the secondary aspects of prevention.

You mentioned that in your remarks, and pardon me if I did not quite get it, but I just wondered, what is your overall assessment of how that is working right now? Is it moving ahead well?

Ms. PARRINO. I think it is moving ahead. We have had a good relationship with CDC. It is just that we have a slightly different focus. And maybe their focus is primary prevention because, as somebody said, you use what you have on the shelf because we serve people with disabilities, and that is our focus. We are very concerned about secondary.

Now, we have come to understand each other, I think, compared to when we first went to CDC when Dr. Mason was the director 3 or 4 years ago. We mentioned secondary disability prevention, and it was something that they were not really even considering. So I think we have come a long way with them. It has been a bit of a tug-of-war, because we keep saying we must focus on secondary as well as primary.

It is not that we do not want to focus on primary disability prevention, but very often people with disabilities will die from complications, secondary conditions, not from the primary disability. And so we feel that since there is very little going on in the country and secondary disability prevention is not in the public health system, we would like to see it in the health care system of the United States so that it is something that doctors understand and that health care providers understand, and that it is not difficult for people with disabilities to find services in secondary disability pre


So I think we are making progress with CDC. They will admit that it has been a bumpy road, but I do not think we should give up. I think we have to push on with that.

Senator HARKIN. Good. You answer a lot of my questions here. In fact, I was marking them off here. One was on when you were submitting your proposals you said "shortly" for the reauthorization. What, in another month?

Ms. PARRINO. Well, we had prepared them for this month, but we may continue and we may go on and have another public hearing, depending on what the decision of the Senate and the House is about the reauthorization. But we have some very good information, very good testimony, and we will be recommending some changes.

Senator HARKIN. You also mentioned the need for personal assistance services. Now, you had a hearing last summer on this, right?

Ms. PARRINO. We have had one hearing. We do not have any funding for that, but we feel it is so critical. It is an issue that for the people needing personal assistance, whether they have a physical disability or a hearing impairment or sight impairment, it is so critical that the Americans With Disabilities Act will have no impact on these people if they need an attendant and cannot get


As we have said in some of our speeches, if you cannot get out of your house you do not even have to worry about being discriminated against. We feel this is absolutely critical, and I think it is the financing of personal assistance. I think there are probably a lot of plans out there that would be very good, national plans for personal assistance. But who is going to pay for it?

And because the Council is very concerned, let me just say, we would like to have fewer people going into nursing homes and institutions because they have a need for personal assistance. We think that that should be provided wherever the person wants to live, whether it is at home, whether it is independently. They should have the option for a personal assistant. As so often happens, they have to follow the funding and the funding is in a nursing home or an institution. We find this absolutely unacceptable.

Along with the ADA, it just does not go hand in hand. It is something that we are struggling with, and we would like to hopefully do something about it.

Senator HARKIN. Have you made some policy recommendations in this area?

Ms. PARRINO. We really have not, because we have had one hearing, and we feel that this has to really be looked into more. We need much more information than we have at the moment.

Senator HARKIN. Well, I would encourage you to continue with that, and if you need any assistance from here let us know.

Ms. PARRINO. Thank you.

Senator HARKIN. Because I would like to know what we need to do to help promote that personal service assistance.

Ms. PARRINO. Well, in the present climate I do not think that we are going to necessarily find a lot of new money to finance a national plan; however, there could be a reallocation.

Senator HARKIN. But, Sandy, I have been stressing prevention and wellness and, again, this is an area where you just pointed out if they do not have the personal assistance they are going to wind up in a nursing home, and that is going to cost us a lot more money.

Ms. PARRINO. Well, that is where there could be maybe a reallocation of funding. In other words, we are funding the nursing homes, and it is very easy for a young person to find the support to go into a nursing home. And we would like to see that funding maybe support personal assistance wherever the person wants to live rather than just in nursing homes.

Senator HARKIN. Make some recommendations to us in that regard, OK, and we will take them up with the Finance Committee, too, and see what we can do on that.

You did a study on assistive technology.

Ms. PARRINO. We are doing one right now.
Senator HARKIN. Oh, you are doing it right now?

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