« PreviousContinue »
*Mortality data in this table are voluntarily reported from 122 cities in the United States, most of which have populations of >100,000. A death is reported by the place of its occurrence and by the week that the death certificate was filed. Fetal deaths are not included.
† Pneumonia and influenza.
Because of changes in reporting methods in this Pennsylvania city, these numbers are partial counts for the current week. Complete counts will be available in 4 to 6 weeks 1 Because of Hurricane Katrina, weekly reporting of deaths has been temporarily disrupted. **Total includes unknown ages.
Prevalence of Self-Reported Postpartum Depressive Symptoms
Postpartum depression (PPD) affects 10%-15% of mothers
Alaska, Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii, Maryland, Maine, Minnesota, North Carolina, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York (excluding New York City), Oregon, Rhode *sland, South Carolina, Utah, Vermont, and Washington.
these 17 states included two questions on self-reported PDS in their PRAMS surveys: 1) "Since your new baby was born, how often have you felt down, depressed, or hopeless?" and 2) "Since your new baby was born, how often have you had little interest or little pleasure in doing things?" The response choices were "always," "often," "sometimes,' “rarely,” and “never"; women who said “often" or "always" to either question were classified as experiencing selfreported PDS. Because of their high sensitivity (96%), these two questions have been recommended as a depression casefinding instrument by health professionals (5,6). Chi-square tests were used to test for significant differences (p<0.05) in the proportion of women reporting PDS by demographic characteristics and other possible risk factors for PDS within each of the 17 states; approximate 95% confidence intervals for these proportions were calculated. To measure the strength of the association overall, the median difference across all states in the proportion of women reporting PDS between two levels of each covariate was calculated. Sample
Confidence intervals are approximate because, when adjusting for the clustered survey design, the confidence intervals computed were close to but not equal to +1.96 x standard error.
366 Preliminary FoodNet Data on the Incidence of Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food
10 States, 2007
370 Malnutrition and Micronutrient Deficiencies Among
373 Automated Detection and Reporting of Notifiable
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
The MMWR series of publications is published by the Coordinating Center for Health Information and Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30333.
Suggested Citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [Article title]. MMWR 2008;57:[inclusive page numbers].
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tanja Popovic, MD, PhD
Chief Science Officer
James W. Stephens, PhD Associate Director for Science
Steven L. Solomon, MD
Director, Coordinating Center for Health Information and Service
Katherine L. Daniel, PhD
Deputy Director, National Center for Health Marketing Editorial and Production Staff
Frederic E. Shaw, MD, JD
(Acting) Managing Editor, MMWR Series
(Acting) Lead Visual Information Specialist Lynda G. Cupell
Malbea A. LaPete
Visual Information Specialists Quang M. Doan, MBA
Erica R. Shaver
Information Technology Specialists
William L. Roper, MD, MPH, Chapel Hill, NC, Chairman
William E. Halperin, MD, DrPH, MPH, Newark, NJ
Dixie E. Snider, MD, MPH, Atlanta, GA
sizes varied for each estimate because women who we missing data on any variable (<5% of all women) we excluded from analysis of that variable. The analysis w conducted using statistical software to adjust for the cer plex survey design and produce statewide estimates. Es mates based on small sample sizes (fewer than respondents) were considered to be unreliable.
The maternal characteristics analyzed included age delivery, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, ar receipt of Medicaid for delivery. Possible risk factors for PD included in the analysis were low infant birth weig (<2,500 g), admission to a neonatal intensive-care ur (NICU), number of previous live births, tobacco use du ing the last 3 months of pregnancy, physical abuse befor or during pregnancy, and experiencing emotional, fina cial, partner-related, or traumatic stress during the !! months before delivery. Women were considered physical abused if they said that a current or former husbarc partner had pushed, hit, slapped, kicked, choked, or phy cally hurt them in any way during the 12 months before or during the most recent pregnancy. Women who report smoking one or more cigarettes on an average day were classified as using tobacco during the last 3 months c pregnancy.
During 2004-2005, overall prevalence of self-reporte PDS ranged from 11.7% (Maine) to 20.4% (New Mexico (Table 1). Demographic characteristics significantly ass ciated with PDS in all of the 17 states were maternal ag marital status, maternal education, and Medicaid coverag for delivery. Among the 17 states, the median percentag point difference in PDS prevalence was 13.4 percentag points between the youngest and oldest mothers, 13 between the lowest and highest education groups, 9.7 b marital status, and 11.0 by Medicaid receipt. In 13 of the 16 states for which data were available, a significant asse ciation was observed between race/ethnicity and PDS, with non-Hispanic white women having a lower prevalence PDS compared with women of other racial/ethnic group
PDS was significantly associated with five possible ris factors in all or nearly all of the 17 states (Table 2). The number of states with significant associations and state
$ Stressors during pregnancy were categorized as 1) emotional (a very sick fam member had to go into the hospital or someone close to the respondent died. financial (the respondent moved to a new address, her husband/partner last job, she lost her job, or she had a lot of bills she could not pay; 3) partner-rel (the respondent separated or divorced from her husband/partner, she argu more than usual with her husband/partner, or her husband/partner said he d not want her to be pregnant); and 4) traumatic (the respondent was homeless she was involved in a physical fight, she or her husband/partner went to jail someone close to her had a problem with drinking/drugs).