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which he had founded both on scientific study and observations on nature. This opposition to his views at length determined him to visit the north of Germany, and he was well received in all the capitals of the German states, as well as in Prussia, Sweden, and Denmark, and explained his system before several sovereigns, by whom he was honoured with marks of esteem and admiration. He like wise visited England, and at length determined to go to, and reside at Paris. Regarding it as the centre of the learned world, he judged it the most proper of all other places to propagate his doctrine: he therefore repaired to that capital in 1807, where his great reputation had already preceded him. Al though Dr. Gall's lectures


been interdicted at Vienna in 1802, by command of the government, the expense of publishing the great work of Gall and Spurzheim, at Paris, in 1810, was guarantied by Prince Metternich, at that time Austrian minister at the court of France. He had previously attended several courses of Dr. Gall's lectures, consulted him as his phy. sician, and remained attached to him up to the time of his death.

The object which Gall proposed was to dissipate the void which existed in physiology and philosophy relative to the situation of the intellectual faculties of man; and, notwithstanding the knowledge of the ancients, and the hitherto received notions which science had taught, yet still its fundamental notions, not by any means perfect, were far from that degree of scientific precision, to which the observations and genius of Gall have conducted us; and, although in the history of science the first ideas of the system may have been dis.

covered, yet still it must be allowed that all the proofs belong to him, as well as the conservation of all the great truths which were brought forth in evidence.

The immense labours of Lavater were well calculated to draw the attention of the curious to the subject, and to apply to the back part of the head those observations which he had made on the face and on the frontal region. Our knowledge of the exterior appearances of the head was yet very imperfect and vague, and those who supported the possibility had not the means of demonstrating it; and the form of the head of those pretended connoisseurs, like the facial lines of Lavater, seemed rather coincidences than the necessary connexions between physics and morals. Gall collected these fugitive ideas, and finally imprinted on them a scientific form; and from which has resulted a system-a system of facts, a series of observations, enlightened by reasoning, grouped and arranged in such a manner that there necessarily follows the demonstration of a new truth, fruitful in useful applications, and sensibly advancing the progress of civilization. Such is the character of the celebrated system of craniology invented by Gall, and which it may be said his genius discovered almost instantaneously, although confirmed by the force of immense application. Starting from this point, the able physiologist laboured incessantly in his painful task, and consecrated to it the whole of his life with that indefatigable ardour, of which men of superior minds alone furnish examples; and although he has not completely succeeded in the difficult enterprise, yet he ought not to be reproached; on the contrary, thanks are due to

his memory for the mere attempt; for the service he has rendered to philosophy is immense. He has prepared immortal glory to medical philosophy, in indicating the nature of the study which ought to be pursued to give intellectual physio. logy all the development of which it is capable; and moral philosophy itself is much indebted to him, for having diverted it from specula tions foreign to its true end, and in which the most trifling prejudice is an incalculable loss of time.

Gall was attended in his lectures by the most distinguished persons in Paris, illustrious as well for their learning, as for the eminent dignities they bore in society. The examination of his body took place 40 hours after his death, in presence of several members of the faculty. The exterior appearance of the body presented a considerable falling away, particularly in the face. The skull was sawed off with the greatest precaution. The substance of the brain was consis. tent, and this organ was firm and perfectly regular. No trace of ossification was remarked in the cerebral arteries, notwithstanding the advanced age of the defunct. The cerebral ventricles were not opened, the brain being expressly ordered to be preserved.


September, 1828. At Exeter, John Taylor Gilman, in the 75th year of his age.

John Taylor Gilman was the first son of Nicholas Gilman, and of Ann Taylor, daughter of the Rev. John Taylor, of Milton, Massachusetts: born at Exeter, N. H. December 19th, 1753. Nicholas Gilman, his father, one of the dele.

gates in forming the constitution of the United States, and a member of the senate of the United States at the time of his death, in 1814, was the second of five sons. Nicholas Gilman was engaged in ship-building and navigation. He brought up his sons to business, and gave them the usual prepara. tory education, which the condition of the province afforded to those who were not designed for the learned professions. The eldest son, inheriting a strong and capa. cious understanding, was made thoroughly acquainted with ac. counts, and became early conversant with the concerns and interests of the province.

At the commencement of the revolutionary contest with Great Britain, New-Hampshire engaged in concert with her sister colonies, in a series of local and popular move. ments, which were conducted with great spirit, prudence, and promptitude. These measures were rendered more difficult by the personal presence and influence of Lieut. Governor Wentworth, who was highly esteemed for his virtues, although circumstances rendered it necessary for him to withdraw from the government of the province. This event took place in the year 1775. On the removal of the public offices, which ensued, for safe keeping, from Portsmouth to Exeter, in the course of the same year, Nicholas Gilman was elected Treasurer by the provincial convention.

On the morning after the news was received of the action at Lexington, Mr. John T. Gilman marched as a volunteer in a company hastily formed, of more than a hundred, from Exeter, which slept the same night at Andover, and en

camped the next day at noon on Cambridge Common. But the alarm which continued to prevail upon the seaboard, with the ab. sence of so great a portion of the active population, who had carried away all the arms that were of use, occasioned an application for their return. He was, soon after his return home, employed in several affairs of importance in the service of the state; taking charge of a large quantity of arms received from France for delivery to the New-Hampshire regiments; and procured large quantities of clothing, so much wanted, for the army.

Mr. Gilman was also employed some time to assist his father as treasurer. In the outset, they adopt ed the same method in New-Hamp. shire which prevailed in Massachusetts, where the treasurer was accustomed to give his orders on the collectors; but Mr. Gilman's father refused to follow it, and determined to pursue a different course. It is recorded as a singu. lar fact, that New-Hampshire lost nothing, in the administration of its finances, during the course of the revolution. Although this was, in some measure, to be attributed to after causes, in the administration of the same department by his son and successor, it is entitled, also, to a particular mention in this place, as laying that foundation of a judicious and well-ordered sys. tem observed in managing the state finances, which contributed towards the final result.

In 1779, Mr. Gilman was chosen a member of the legislature of the state, and thence elected one of the committee of safety. This committee, consisting of from seven to nine, was composed of persons

chosen from the legislature; and, by not being re-elected to that body, they vacated their seats at the board. Several were chosen delegates to congress. The com. mittee was in constant session during the whole revolution.

In October, 1780, a delegation from the New-England states and New-York convened first at Hartford, to consult on the public emergencies, and provide for the neces sary means of common defence. The rest of the states, except New. Hampshire, were represented by several delegates. Mr. Gilman was the only delegate appointed from that state, and was very averse to undertaking the duty alone; but his objections were overcome by the urgency of President Weare and General Folsom, with the advice of Mr. John Langdon and others. There was not, at the time, money enough in the treasury to bear his expenses. "Things looked dark," Mr. Gilman observed, "in the fall of 1780;" and he long after recalled a conversation he had at that period with JoHN SLOSS HOBART, one of the delegates from New-York, who was considerably his senior in years, (afterwards senator in congress, and judge of the United States district court,) and which, on Mr. Gilman's part, probably, betokened some solici tude, at that critical season of the revolution. "Don't give yourself any concern," said Mr. Hobart, raising his finger upward, "it is written there, we shall be free!" The only person living of this convention, since Mr. Gilman, is believed to be Judge Benson, another delegate from New-York.

In March, 1781, Mr. Gilman was appointed a delegate to congress, but did not take his seat.

In January, 1782, he was reappointed a delegate and New. Hampshire being left without any representative in congress after April, he took his seat at Philadel. phia on the 20th of June. He was, at that time, the youngest member of that body, and continued, without any colleague, until the termination of the congressional year, in No. vember.

The negotiations for peace were pending, and the preliminary arti. cles signed during the period Mr. Gilman was in congress. He was, of course, familiar with the springs and the progress of those principles and proceedings by which the councils of congress on that question were influenced or controlled ; and which were kept inviolably secret, except from the French Legation at Philadelphia. The private political history of that af fair, in its connexion with the interior discussions of congress on the subject, made a strong impression on his mind; and he retained a faithful and abiding recollection of the policy, both foreign and do. mestic, which marked the details of those extraordinary diplomatic measures, upon which subsequent developments have cast so broad and clear a light. Mr. Gilman joined, as the sole representative of New-Hampshire, in the solemn and memorable declaration of congress, which marked the close of the eventful political year 1782, that they would "conclude neither a separate peace nor truce with Great Britain; but that they would prosecute the war with vigour, until, by the blessing of God on the united arms, a peace should be happily accomplished, by which the full and absolute sovereignty and independence of these United States

having been fully assured, their rights and interests, as well as those of their allies, should be effectually provided for and secured." At the same time he was among those who were opposed to that control. ling direction which was sought to be given by the form of instructions to our envoys at Paris, in conducting the negotiations for peace, in avowed deference to the court of France, and in conformity with the political views of M. de Vergennes. Not merely as the most nothern and castern delegate in congress, but on principles of paramount fidelity to the whole Union, he realized the vital interest and importance to the objects set forth in the declaration of October, 1782, of maimaining our rightful boundaries and fisheries to the farthest verge of their legiti mate limits. It was probably under a profound conviction of this character, that the sentiment was long cherished by Mr. Gilman, and uttered with emphatic earnestness at the closing period of his life, that "to John Adams and John Jay, AMERICA was more indebted than to any two men living."

Besides the interesting question of peace, the affairs of Vermont, then known by the name of NewHampshire Grants, formed a subject of serious concernment.

The preliminary articles of peace were received before Mr. Gilman left congress, which was in April, 1783. The resignation of his seat was occasioned by the sudden decease of his father, who was then in the office of treasurer of the state, which required his return, and which was soon followed by the death of his excellent mother. It devolved upon him to adjust his father's accounts, and having closed

these concerns, to the satisfaction of the state, he was chosen successor to the same trust in June, 1783. In this situation he continued, by successive re-elections, until he was appointed, under the authority of the confederation, one of the commissioners, three in number, to settle the accounts of the revolution between the different states. His colleagues were General Irvine, of Pennsylvania, and Mr. Kean, of South Carolina, in the room of Mr. Baldwin, of Georgia, who resigned on being chosen senator. This commission continued in force, without interruption of its business by the adoption of the federal constitution, and was sitting in New-York, where Mr. Gilman attended in January, at the organization of the new government; after which, a re-appointment took place under President Washington.

The declining health of his wife, whose death took place in 1791, occasioned his resignation. Previous thereto, a report of this committee was made by Mr. Gilman (in the absence of General Irvine) and Mr. Kean, April 29th, 1790, in compliance with an order of the house of representatives.

On relinquishing this appointment, he was re-chosen to the office of treasurer of N. Hampshire, which he continued to discharge until the new constitution of the state went into operation, and he was elected chief magistrate. The prudence with which the finances of the state were conducted, during the difficult season of the revolution, under the original administration of his father, has been already referred to as one of the causes why that state was saved from any loss in consequence of the revolution. But

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this result is finally and mainly attributable to the able, honourable, judicious,and disinterested manage. ment of the state funds, during the operation of the funding system, by which the state was enriched, while he took all the risk and responsibility on himself, with the acknow. ledgment of the most scrupulous integrity.

The character and services of Mr. Gilman, rendered him, at this period, a conspicuous object of public consideration in New-Hampshire. His opinions were exhibited, and their decision tested, in the primary stages of forming and ad. ministering the federal constitution. Public faith, virtue, and justice, had, with him, the authority of first principles. Their purity and sanctity were, in his view, inviolable; and he was distinguished as a foremost and fast friend of the important political scheme for redeeming the obligations of the revolution, establishing the efficacy of self-go. vernment, and insuring the safety and respectability of the Union. The demands for confidence and support required, in the outset of this great experiment, it may be more difficult, at the present time, fully to appreciate, since they have acquired the slow, but perfect sanction of experience; and the merits of those principles, which have now became axioms in public sentiment, have been almost lost in the splendid success which the original system has achieved. It may here be observed, that Mr. Gilman was always open and explicit in the expressions which were required of him, concerning public measures. Concealment or equivocation of any kind were entirely foreign to his character; and the general im

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