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of all the French settlements in India, by Miss Jean Carvalho, daughter of a Portuguese gentleman settled at Calcutta. His fa. ther died at Paris, about 1796; and, he being of the Romish communion, his younger brother, Francis-John-William Law, Esq. a merchant of London, was, in 1808, the nearest heir to his father of the reformed religion, and entered into possession of the estates in Scotland.

The deceased, at an early age, embraced the military profession, and obtained rapid promotion in the artillery. He was active, and he enjoyed the friendship of Bonaparte, who made him one of his aides-de-camp. Bonaparte also employed him on several important missions. In 1800, he commanded, as Brigadier-general, the 4th regi. ment of flying artillery at La Fere. In 1801, he brought to England the ratification of the preliminaries of the peace of Amiens.

After the death of the Duc d'Eng. hien, General Lauriston-happened to be in the antechamber of the consular court of Bonaparte with M. de Caulaincourt, when the conversation having turned upon the murder of the prince, and upon the part which Caulaincourt had performed in the affair, Lauriston spiritedly exclaimed, "the First Consul has too much esteem for me, to employ me in such a transaction." The conversation grew warm, and it was only through Bonaparte's interference that the quarrel was not carried to a greater height. Though displeased with Lauriston's remark, the consul did not dismiss him, but sent him on an unimportant embassy to Italy, and contrived that he and Caulain. court should never meet again in his presence.

M. de Lauriston was in every campaign of note in Spain, Germany, and Russia. In 1809, he penetrated into Hungary, and took the fortress of Raab, after a bombardment of eight days. He also decided the victory in favour of the French at the batttle of Wagram, by coming up to the charge at full trot, with one hundred pieces of artillery. In 1811, he was appointed ambassador to the court of St. Petersburgh. His mission, the object of which was to obtain the occupation of the ports of Riga and Revel, and to exclude English ships from the Baltic, having failed, he was employed in the Russian campaign; and, af ter the taking of Moscow, he was sent to the Emperor Alexander, with proposals for an armistice Those proposals were rejected.

General Lauriston, after the retreat from Moscow, commanded an army of observation on the banks of the Elbe. During three months he defended that river with a small force, and prevented the enemy from entering Hanover. Having distinguished himself at the battle of Leipsic, he retreated to the bridge between that town and Lindenau. Finding the bridge destroyed, he plunged into the river with his horse, but was taken prisoner, and conducted to Berlin, where he was treated with much favour and kindness.

After the conclusion of the general peace, the king created him a Knight of St. Louis, Grand Cordon of the Legion of Honour, and cap tain-lieutenant of the Gray Musketeers, an appointment rendered vacant by the death of General Nansouty. After the 20th of March, 1815, he followed the royal household to the frontiers of France, and then retired to his estate of Riche

court, near La Fere, without taking part in any of the transactions of the Hundred Days.

On the return of the king, Gen. Lauriston was made president of the Electoral College of the department of l'Aisne, lieutenant. general of the first division of royal Foot Guards, and member of the commission appointed to examine into the conduct of such officers as had served from the 20th of March to the 18th of July, 1815. He was created a commander of the Order of St. Louis, in 1816; and he presided, in the course of the same year, over the council of war appointed for the trial of Admiral Linois, Count Delaborde, &c. On the 6th of June, 1823, he was raised to the dignity of Marshal of France, in the room of the Prince of Eckmuhl, deceased, and appointed commander-in-chief of the second corps of reserve of the French army in Spain.


July 17, 1828. At Paris, of aneurism in the heart, aged 57, the Duke of San Carlos, ambassador from Spain to the court of France, aud formerly to England.

He was a native of Lima, and received his education in the prin. cipal college of that city, the rector of which was his governor. At the age of seventeen he went to Spain, where he progressively attained his military rank, became a grandee of the first class, counsel. lor of state, &c. He commenced his military career as colonel in the second regiment of Majorca infantry, of which his uncle was colonelproprietor. He served in the Cata. lonian campaign, in the war of

1793; and as a volunteer in the Toulon expedition.

On the death of his uncle, Colonel San Carlos was appointed chamberlain, and afterwards governor, to the Prince of the Astu. His rias, now Ferdinand VII. system of education, however, not being in accordance with the political views of Godoy, Prince of Peace, the influence of that profligate adventurer deprived him of his honourable post. Yet, such was the consequence of San Carlos, that he was named Major Domo to the Queen in 1801, when the court was occupied with negotiating an alliance between the heir of Spain, and his cousin, a princess of Naples.

In 1805, he was invested with the office of Major Domo to Charles IV.; but in 1807, some time previously to the imprisonment of the Prince of the Asturias, through the intrigues of Godoy, in the palace of the Escurial, he was removed from court, and appointed to the viceroyship of Navarre. Three months after his assumption of that government, he was ordered to consider himself a prisoner in the cita. del. This measure is understood to have been taken in consequence of a report that the Duke of San Carlos had ventured to advise the heir-apparent to deprive the queenmother of all political influence in the event of the king's death, his majesty being at that time very ill, and also to put Godoy upon his trial. On the 28th of October, 1807, Ferdinand's papers were seized, his person placed in durance, and he and his counsellors declared to be traitors. In the subsequent investigation of the Escurial, the duke was subjected to close and severe examination :

and though subsequently liberated with the prince, he was ordered to remove sixty leagues from Ma. drid, not to reside within twenty leagues of the coast, and not to fix his abode in Navarre.

When the French armies entered Spain, he resided at Alfaro. In the mean time, the insurrection in Aranjuez broke out, Prince Ferdinand ascended the throne, (March, 1808,) imprisoned and confiscated the property of Godoy, and appointed the Duke of San Carlos GrandMaster of the Household and Member of his Privy Council. The duke arrived in Madrid some days before his royal master's departure for Bayonne, accompanied him in his journey, and had several conferences with Bonaparte on the subject of exchanging the crown of Spain for that of Etruria. In these conferences the duke invariably insisted, that Ferdinand would not consent to any treaty without the enjoyment of his liberty, or without the sanction of the Cortes. In the interim, Godoy had been liberated in Madrid, through the influence of Murat. He immediately proceeded to Bayonne, whither he was fol. lowed by Charles IV. and his queen. The old monarch then retracted his abdication, and ultimately his son was compelled to restore to him his crown. Joseph Bona. parte having first been placed on the throne of Spain, Ferdinand, was sent to Valençay, in France, whither he was accompanied by the Duke of San Carlos, the Canon Escoiquitz, &c. The Duke remained with Ferdinand till he, with Escoiquitz, was ordered by Buonaparte to Paris. While in that capital, he availed himself of the opportunity to confer with the diplomatic agents of Russia, Prussia,


and Austria, on the affairs of Spain. Bonaparte afterwards suspecting the influence possessed by the duke, and by Escoiquitz, over his royal captive, determined upon separating them from Prince Ferdinand. The duke was cordingly confined at Leons-leTaulnier, and the canon at Bourges. In his retirement the Duke of San Carlos cultivated his taste for botany, and more particularly for history, politics, and general literature. Five years had Ferdinand and his relatives been in captivity in France, when Bonaparte, finding himself attacked by the allied powers of Europe, and no longer in a condition to leave a numerous army in Spain, determined to reinstate him. In consequence of this resolve he recalled the Duke of San Carlos to Paris, in November, 1813. There San Carlos communicated with the Duke of Bassano, and then went to Valençay, where, after several long discussions, a treaty was concluded on the 11th of De cember. The Duke, in conse. quence, set out for Madrid, to obtain the consent of the regency to the treaty. He arrived there on the 16th of January, 1814; but the arrangements proposed by France were not accepted, and he was under the necessity of returning to Valençay. In passing through Catalonia he had a conference with Marshal Suchet, on the subject of evacuating Spain by the French army. Previously to the duke's arrival at Valençay, Ferdinand, impatient of his return, had despatched Don Joseph Palafox to Madrid, with new instructions. At length, after many obstructions, the king, accompanied by the duke, set out upon his return. It was found expedient to proceed in the

first instance to Saragossa; and the Cortes not choosing to give up the reins of government, they next went to Valencia, in the month of April.

On the 3d of May, the Duke of San Carlos was appointed first se. cretary of state. In consequence of the refusal of General Freyre to accept the office of Minister of War, the duke accepted it, in conjunction with that of Minister of the King's Household. The former post he soon afterwards resigned in favour of General Eguia.

Soon after the restoration of king Ferdinand, the duke his minister commenced the task of introducing a system of economy into the king. dom. He established a junta of ministers, over whom he presided, took various measures for a gene. ral repair of the roads, increasing the number of canals, and r viving the credit of the national bank; and he established several acade. mies for the cultivation of the arts and sciences. Notwithstanding these very laudable exertions, his enemies were numerous; and finding them increase, he obtained permission, in November, 1814, to terminate his ministerial functions.

In October, 1815, he was nominated ambassador to the Austrian court. In 1817, he was recalled, and sent in the same capacity to the court of Britain, where he resided some years, till replaced by the Duke of Frias. His next and last diplomatic appointment, which he held until the time of his death, was at the French court. He is succeeded in his titles and estates by his eldest son, the Count del Puerto, an officer in the royal guards of Spain.


August 21st, 1828.-At his residence in Blockley, aged 84, Richard Peters, late judge of the U. S. district court for Pennsylvania.

Richard Peters was born in June 1744. He received his education in the city of Philadelphia; and, on entering the active scenes of life, was a good Latin and Greek scholar, and possessed a knowledge of the French and German languages.

Having adopted the law as a profession, his acquaintance with the German enabled him to follow, the courts of justice into all the surrounding counties, where his fluent conversation, extensive knowledge of the provincial grants and kindred laws, brought him into practice.

On those circuits, he was accus. tomed to display his unrivalled wit. The playfulness of his conversa. tion, always enlivened by flashes of the gayest pleasantry, was forever quick and unrestrained, and varied by casts of true humour. Thus distinguished, he became a favourite with all classes.

About this time a conference was held with the Indians of the six nations, at Fort Stanwix, in the province of New-York, and Mr. Peters accompanied the delegation from Pennsylvania. During the negotiation of the treaty, he insinuated himself so much into the good graces of the Indian chiefs, and became so acceptable to them, by his light-hearted jests, and sportive behaviour, that even those sedate red-men relaxed their rigid carriage, and unbending for a moment the usual severity of their characters, proposed to adopt him into their tribes. The offer was accepted, and Mr. Peters was for.

mally introduced to his new relations, receiving from them, in allusion to his amusing talkativeness, the appropriate name of Tegohtias, which means Paroquet.

Political difficulties with the mo. ther country, now compelled every Mr. Pe. man to choose his side.

ters, although rather intimately associated with the proprietary government, did not hesitate to separate himself from it, and join the cause of his native country. While many influential members of the bar went over to the king, he stept forward with zeal in defence of Ame. rican rights.

Pennsylvania was, in that early day, without a militia. The peaceful descendants of Penn, and of his non-resistant companions, had managed their affairs, even with the fierce aborigines, for nearly a century, without military aid, or any restraint whatever, other than the authority of mild and prudent laws. But those quiet times were about to be disturbed. It became neMr. Peters voluncessary to arm. teered with his neighbours, and when they assembled for the purpose of organization, he was chosen their captain. His military career, however, was short. He was soon removed from the camp The 13th of June, to the cabinet. 1776, he was appointed by congress Secretary of the Board of War, where his services, during nearly the whole struggle for independence were acknowledged by a solemn vote of thanks by that illustrious body.

In February, 1781, a Secretary of War was authorised to be appointed instead of the Board of War, but the business was still carried on by the old board, and on The 19th of November, of that year,


Mr. P. was requested to perform
the duties of the department until
the Secretary of War should enter
upon the duties of his office.

The destitute state of the coun. try, and the difficulties under which he laboured in the performance of his responsible duties as adjunct War Minister, are well illustrated in the following anecdote, told by Mr. Peters himself.

"I was Commissioner of War,
he said, in 1779. General Wash.
ington wrote to me that all his
der was wet, that he was entirely
without lead or balls; so that should
the enemy approach him, he must
When I received this let-

ter, I was going to a grand gala at
the Spanish ambassador's, who liv
ed in Mr. Chew's fine house in
South Third street ;-the show was
splendid; but my feelings were far
from being in harmony with all this
brilliancy. I met at this party, my
friend Robert Morris, who soon
discovered the state of my mind.
'You are not yourself, to-night;
Peters; what's the matter?' asked
Morris. Notwithstanding my un:
limited confidence in that patriot,
it was some time before I could
prevail upon myself to disclose the
cause of my depression; but at
length I ventured to give him a hint
of my inability to answer the press-
ing calls of the commander in
chief. The army is without lead,
and I know not where to get an
ounce to supply it: the general
must retreat for want of ammuni

'Well, let him retreat,' replied the liberal minded Morris : 'but cheer up: there are in the Holkar privateer, just arrived, ninety tons of lead, one half of which is mine, and at your service; the residue you can get by applying to Blair M'Clanaghan, and Holkar.

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