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approximative, though not direct, indication of its economical state; and, considering the increase of the exports of England, during the interval between these two periods, amounting to thirty millions, as a measure of her increase of wealth, it will appear that three fourths of it have proceeded from the establishment of this single branch of industry. Thus far, the improvement has been owing entirely to the independence of the United States. Before the revolution, no cotton was produced in the colonies, and very little was manufac. tured in England. In the year 1784, the one following the peace, the first exportation of this article took place from the United States, and consisted of eight bales, which were seized on their arrival at Liverpool, on suspicion that they were not of the growth of the country, as it was not known previously that cotton was cultivated there. The necessity of finding some agricultural product with which to furnish the parent kingdom in exchange for her manufactures, soon extended the cultivation of this ́plant, and in the year 1823 the number of bales of cotton imported at Liverpool from the United States amounted to 406,670. The cheapness and abundance with which, this valuable article was supplied, naturally extended the manufacture of it in England; until, after satis. fying an immense demand for home consumption, it furnished, in 1823, the prodigious quantity for expor. tation specified above. Upon eve. ry bale of cotton, thus produced in the United States, and wrought up in England, it is calculated that the profits of the labour of England are to those of the labour of the United States in the proportion of twenty Such are the respective
advantages resulting to the two parties from the intercourse that naturally grows up between a pa. rent state and its colonies, and yet the latter have no reason to complain. The cotton planters of the United States are among the most prosperous and wealthiest classes of the community, and this branch of industry is regarded by all as of the highest national importance.
Such has been to England the value of the increased market for her products, produced by the independence of her colonies, in this single department of labour. In others, such as the woollen and iron manufactures, the encourage. ment afforded, if not so extensive, has been still of great consequence; and, as it is generally acknowledged, so it appears to be true on a close inspection, that the vast accession of wealth she has exhibited since the American revolution, is immediately attributable to that cause, and could not have taken place without it. With the increase of wealth, the population has been doubled, and the comforts of life have been diffused throughout all classes; cultivation has been extended; roads and canals constructed or improved; and the face of the country in a manner entirely changed. The government has found its resources augmented in the same proportion; has risen from the rank of a secondary to that of a leading European power; has sustained a war of thirty years against a most formidable combination of the continental states, attended with expenses before unheard of, to the amount, in one year, of thirteen milliards of reals; and, notwithstanding this astonishing destruction of productive capital, has still maintained its credit, and remains one of the wealthiest.
and has continued ever since fo take this direction. The trade with France, notwithstanding the superior advantages of it in an economi. cal point of view, never flourished to any great extent, and the exports to that country have never been more than a fourth or fifth of those to England. In like man. ner, the trade of the Spanish colo. nies would immediately take the direction of Spain, as far as the agricultural and manufacturing in. dustry of the kingdom is now capa. ble of supplying their wants; and in proportion as the resources of the peninsula were developed under the operation of this beneficial intercourse, the trade would continue more and more to increase, bringing with it the favourable ef fects that I have already described.
most powerful, and most prosperous nations on the globe.
Such, or similar to these, would be the advantages derived by Spain from the independence of her colonies. The two cases are parallel; nor can any good reason be given why the results should not be the It may be said, indeed, that, because Spain is at present inferior in the perfection of her fabrics to some other countries, the new demand from the colonies would direct itself towards the latter, especially as commercial relations are already established with England, France, and the United States. But those who draw this conclusion have not sufficiently considered the influence of a community of origin, language, religion, and manners, in determining the intercourse among men. Similar predictions were made at the time, in regard to the direction which would be taken by the com. merce of the United States, after their separation from England. They had received from France the most important aid in the revolutionary war; and France was at that time a nation much richer than England, not only in natural products, as she is now, but even in those of art. A close commercial relation had been established by the political alliance that existed during the war; and it was antici. pated that after the peace, the trade of the United States with France would be much more considerable than that with England. No sooner, however, were the restrictions on the intercourse with the mother country removed by the conclusion of peace, than the commerce of the United States returned into the old channels from which it had been diverted for several years,
Such, my lord duke, are the grounds upon which the government of the United States have formed their opinion upon this subject, and the reasons by which they have been induced to recommend to his majesty's government the policy of a general pacification, If the facts I have stated are in any way correct, it results, from the whole, that the recovery of the colonies is impossible, either by actual force, by the effect of internal dissentions, or by the aid of foreign powers; that the continu. ance of the war is attended with great inconveniences, among which must be reckoned, at no distant period, the loss of the islands; and that peace, besides the ordinary blessings which it always carries with it, would, in this case, administer immediate relief to the financial embarrassments of the government, and, by its ultimate consequences, restore the prosperity and greatness of the kingdom.
Deeply impressed with this view of the subject, the government of the United States have considered it an act of real friendship and duty, to communicate their sentiments to his Catholic Majesty; and they cannot but hope that the communication will not be without effect. I have only to add, that the efficacy of the measure recommended, both in removing evil and in producing positive good, depends very much upon its being adopted immediately. Should the peace be delayed a single year, it will, in all probability, be too late to save the islands. Should the acknowledgment of the independence of the colonies be deferred until it becomes a mere matter of form, it can hardly be presumed that they will be willing to purchase it by any great sacrifices, and it will not, in that case, bring relief to the finances. Fi. nally, if the trade of America is permitted to flow for too long a time in foreign channels, it is, at least, uncertain whether it will ever return to the mother country. What is to be done should, on every account, be done quickly. If it should be thought by his majesty's govern. ment that the good offices of that of the United States would be of use in bringing about an accommodation on the basis indicated in the present note, they will be employed with great readiness and pleasure; and I should be truly happy to con
tribute, in any way, by my personal services, in effecting so great and benevolent an object.
Of the glorious actions achieved under the patronage of the sove reigns of Spain, predecessors of his majesty, the greatest, beyond a doubt, was the enterprise of Christopher Columbus. The discovery and settlement of an unknown world, the foundation of a brotherhood of new nations, the diffusion of the noble Castilian language and with it, of the lights of civiliza. tion and Christianity, over a whole quarter of the globe; these were the results of the enlightened policy of Ferdinand the Catholic, and his celebrated queen. It has been reserved for his present majesty to put the last finish to this great work, by a measure that shall at once confirm the prosperity of Spanish America, and restore the splendour and greatness of Spain. Seldom has it been in the power of any monarch or any government to effect, by a single act, so much good as would result from this. May God, in his providence, incline the king's heart to perform it.
I pray your excellency to submit this communication to the consideration of his majesty, and avail myself of this occasion to offer your excellency the renewed assurance of my sincere respect and esteem. A. H. EVERETT. Madrid, January 20, 1826.
PASSED AT THE FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTIETH CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES.
[N.B. The titles only of private acts and appropriation bills, are given; and the dates of approval refer back to the last preceding dates.]
John Quincy Adams, President; J. C. Calhoun, Vice President, and President of the Senate; Nathaniel Macon, President of the Senate pro tempore; Andrew Stevenson, Speaker of the House of Representatives.
CHAP. 1. An Act making partial Appropriations for the support of Government during the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty-eight. Approved 3d January, 1828.
CHAP. 2. An Act to prevent defalcations on the part of disbursing Agents of the Government, and for other purposes.
Be it enacled, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That no money hereafter appropriated shall be paid to any person for his compensation, who is in arrears to the United States, until such person shall have accounted for and paid into the treasury all sums for which he may be liable. Provided, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to extend to balances arising solely from the depreciation of treasury notes, received by such person to be expended in the public service; but in all cases where the pay or salary of any person is withheld, in pursuance of this act, it shall be the duty of the accounting officers, if demanded by the party,his agent or attorney, to report forthwith to the agent of the treasury department the balance due; and it shall be the duty of the said agent, within sixty days thereafter, to order suit to be commenced against such delinquent and his sureties.
CHAP. 8. An Act for the relief of Hampton L. Boone, of Missouri.
Approved 21st February, 1828.
CHAP. 12. An Act for the relief of Henry G. Rice. CHAP. 13. An Act for the relief of the legal representatives of the late General William Hull. CHAP. 14. An Act for the relief of William Cloyd. CHAP. 15. An Act to revive and continue in force
"An Act declaring the assent of Congress to a certain Act of Maryland."
Be it enacted, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That the act passed the seventeenth day of March, in the year one thousand eight hundred, entitled "An Act declaring the assent of Congress to certain acts of the states of Maryland and Georgia," and which, by subsequent acts, has been revived and continued in force until the the third day of March, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-eight, be, and the same, so far as relates to the act of Maryland, hereby is revived and continued in force until the third day of March, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight. Provided, that nothing herein contained shall authorize the demand of a duty on tonnage of vessels propelled by steam, employed in the transportation of passengers.
CHAP. 16. An Act to alter the time of holding the District Courts of the United States in the district of North Carolina.
SECT. 1. Be it enacled, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That the district Courts of the United States for the district of North Carolina
shall, after the passing of this act, commence and be holden on the following days: that is to say, at Edenton, in and for the district of Albemarle, on the third Monday of April and October; at Newbern, in and for the district of Pamlico,on the fourth Monday of April and October; and at Wilmington, in and for the district of Cape Fear, or Clarendon, on the first Monday after the fourth Monday of April and October, in each and every year.
SECT. 2. And be it further enacted, That all suits, actions, writs, process, and other proceedings, commenced or to commence, or which shall now be pending, in any of the said district courts, shall be returnablo to, heard, tried, and proceeded with, in the said district courts, in the same manner as if the time for the holding thereof had not been changed.
Approved 10th March, 1828.
CHAP. 17. An Act making appropriations for the support of the Navy of the United States, for the year eighteen hundred and twenty-eight. CHAP. 18. An Act making appropriations for cer tain Fortifications of the United States, for the year one thousand eight hundred and twentyeight.
CHAP. 19. An Act granting the right of preference in the purchase of public Lands, to certain settlers in the St. Helena land district, in the state of Louisiana.
CHAP. 20. An Act for the relief of the Columbian
CHAP. 21. An Act making appropriations for the Military Service of the United States, for the year one thousand eight hundred and twentyeight.
CHAP. 22. An Act to revive and continue in force the several acts making provision for the extinguishment of the Debt due the United States, by the purchasers of the public lands.
SECT. 1. Be it enacted, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, The the act, entitled "An act to provide for the extinguishment of the debt due to the United States by the purchasers of public lands," approved May the eighteenth, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-four, and the act entitled "An act explanatory of an act to provide for the extinguishment of the debt due the United States by the purchasers of public lands," approved May the twenty-sixth, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-four; and also the act, entitled "An act making further provision for the extinguishment of the debt due to the United States by the purchasers of public lands," approved May the fourth, one thousand eight hun
dred and twenty-six; be, and the same are hereby, revived and continued in force until the fourth day of July, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine.
SECT. 2. And be it further enacted, That the provisions of this act be, and the same are, hereby extended to all lands on which a further credit has not been taken, and which, having become forfeited to the United States since the first of July, one thousand eight hundred and twenty, remain unsold.
Approved 21st March, 1828.
CHAP. 23. An Act authorizing a subscription for the Statistical Tables prepared by George Watterston and Nicholas B. Van Zandt.
CHAP. 24. An Act for the relief of William Augustus Archbald.
CHAP. 25. An Act for the relief of George Johnston, Jonathan W. Ford, Josiah Mason, and John English.
CHAP. 26. An Act for the relief of Catharine Stearns.
CHAP. 27. An Act for the relief M. Brown, widow of the late Major General Brown. Approved 3d April, 1828.
CHAP. 28. An Act to confirm certain claims to Lands in the territory of Michigan.
CHAP. 29. An Act providing for the appointment
of an additional Judge of the Superior Court for the territory of Arkanzas, and for other
SECT. 1. Be it enacted, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That it shall be lawful for the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to appoint and commission an additional Judge of the Superior Court for the territory of Arkansas, who shall reside in said territory, and hold his commission for the term of four years.
SECT. 2. And be it further enacted, That when said judge shall have been commissioned, the legislature of the territory of Arkansas shall be authorized to organize the counties of said territory into four judicial districts, and to assign to each of the four judges of the superior court of the territory of Arkansas one of the said circuits or districts, and to require said judges to hold circuit or district courts in each county of their respective districts, at such place and time as the legislature aforesaid may appoint and designate.
SECT. 3. And be it further enacted, That in addition to holding district or circuit courts as aforesaid, the judges aforesaid shall hold two terms annually of the su