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at Vienna, on the 29th of October,
clared, in his speech to the Legis. lative Assembly of Brazil, on the sixth of May, that "he had abdi. cated and ceded all the indisputa. ble and irrefragible rights which he had possessed to the crown of the Portuguese monarchy to his daughter the Princess Donna Maria de Gloria, Queen of Portugal." His Imperial Majesty despatched Sir Charles Stuart from Rio de Ja. neiro to Lisbon, as the bearer of these instruments on the 11th of May, thus concluding the whole of this important transaction in four. teen days. It is obvious, from the observation of these dates, that no person possessing any authority from his Majesty, with the exception of Sir Charles Stuart, could have interfered, even by advice, in the adoption of these measures; and it is not pretended that such advice was ever received from his Excellency. The avowed object of the measures of April and May, 1826, was to separate, finally, the kingdoms of Portugal and Brazil,an event equally desired by both parts of the monarchy. This object was accomplished by the promulgation of the charter, as ef. fectually and as solemnly as it could be by an instrument executed by the sovereign himself. In the proclamation addressed to the Portuguese nation, and dated the 2d of May, 1826, his Imperial Majesty declared that his abdication should become complete as soon as the constitution had been sworn to, and the marriage concluded between the Infant Don Miguel and the Queen Donna Maria. The constitution was sworn to, as his Imperial Majesty had directed, upon its re. ception in Portugal, and the affi. ance of marriage was completed
The undersigned may now be permitted to ask, whether the promises of the abdication, and of the transmission of the Infant Queen to Portugal, were fulfilled. Did not his Imperial Majesty continue to interfere in all the measures of detail of the Portuguese government? Did he not create peers? promote officers in the army and navy? interfere in the selection and nomination of ministers, and in all the interior arrangements of the kingdom? The Portuguese nation was disappointed in its hope and expectation of a final separation from Brazil; and the disap. pointment of this hope and expecta. tion was still further confirmed by the detention of their young Queen at Rio de Janeiro. In the mean time, the dissatisfaction and discontent produced by the constitution transmitted from Brazil were daily increasing, and at last broke out into acts of violence, and of open rebellion. In this state of things, his Imperial Majesty, having first ordered his brother, the Infant Don Miguel, to repair from Vienna to Rio de Janeiro, and having sent a ship of the line to Brest, for the purpose of conveying him thither, suddenly countermanded these or ders, and, unsolicited by his Majesty, appointed his Royal Highness to be his Lieutenant in Portugal, and Regent of the kingdom. This decision, the undersigned is ready to admit, may have been justly demanded by the distracted condition of the country, and, in point of fact, was subsequently recommended by his Majesty. But he must, at the same time, beg to observe to the Marquis de Barbacena, that from
what he has now had the honour to state, it clearly appears that the abdication of the crown-the composition and grant of the constitutional charter-the promise to send the Queen Donna Maria to Portugal-the unfortunate delay in the execution of that promise, as well as the little respect paid to the pledge virtually given by the abdication, not to interfere from Brazil in the internal government of Portugal; and, finally, that the nomination of the Infant Don Miguel as Regent, were all acts spontaneously emanating from the Emperor Don Pedro himself, which did not originate with the King, his master, and for the effects of which his Majesty I cannot be held responsible.
The undersigned will not conclude without further expressing his regret, that the counsels of Great
The King, our sovereign, has been pleased to direct to the Secre. tary of State and despatch the fol. lowing decree :
Britain, when offered, should have been received with so little confi dence and alacrity. These counsels have never been adopted by his Imperial Majesty, until the course of events had rendered the choice of any alternative impracti cable; nor until, from this reluct ance and delay, they had, in a great measure, been deprived of their beneficial influence. In truth, it may be affirmed, that so far from Great Britain having been instrumental in the production of the evils which have recently afflicted Portugal, they are mainly to be attributed to the want of a frank, consistent, and direct course of policy on the part of the Brazilian government itself.
The undersigned, &c. (Signed) ABERDEEN. The Marquis de Barbacena, &c.
The promulgation of a representative system of government in Portugal might have been expected to disturb public tranquillity in its neighbouring country, which, scarcely liberated from revolution, was not, perhaps, generally anima. ted by the most perfect loyalty. But, though a few persons in Spain have, indeed, dared secretly to encourage the hope of seeing the ancient form of government changed, the general opinion has been so loudly declared against alteration,
that no one has ventured to disregard it. This new proof of the fidelity of my vassals calls on me to disclose to them my sentiments and declare my wish to preserve their religion and laws, which have always rendered the Spanish name glorious; and the subversion of which always leads, as experience has taught, to demoralization and anarchy.
Let the circumstances of other countries be what they may, we will govern ourselves by our own; and I, as the father of my people, will give more attention to the humble voice of the immense majority of my vassals, who are faithful and useful to their country, than to the
vociferations of an insignificant and turbulent band, whose only desire is to renew scenes, the memory of which I do not now wish to recall.
Having published a royal decree on the 19th April, 1825, in which, being convinced that our ancient legislation was the most proper to maintain in force our sacred religion, and our mutual rights of paternal sovereignty and filial vassalage, so well suited to our habits and education, I was pleased to assure my subjects, that no change should ever take place in the legal form of my government, nor any Chambers, or similar institutions, under whatever denomination, be permitted to be established; it now only remains for me to inform all the vassals of my dominions, that I will act towards them according to their deserts, putting in execution the laws against those who break them, and protecting those who observe them. Desirous of seeing all Spaniards united in opinion and will, I am determined to dispense protection to all who obey the laws, and to be inflexible to all who audaciously attempt to dictate new laws to the country.
Wherefore, I have resolved that the said decree shall again be transmitted to all the authorities of the kingdom; charging, at the same time, the magistrates with
rightful administration of justice, which is the surest guarantee of the happiness of the people, and the best recompense of their fidelity.
"You are to hold this as intended, and to take the necessary steps for publishing and carrying the same into effect."
Provisional Tariff of Duties, to be levied on goods imported from, or ex
ported to, America :
Caracas and Maracaibo,
Signed at the Palace, the 15th of August, 1826.-Directed to the Duke del Infantado.
The King, our Lord, considering that the encouragement afforded to the commerce of America, by the admission of foreign flags, granted by the Royal Order of the 9th of February, 1827, has not been sufficient to promote this trade in the various branches of industry and navigation concerned in it, and that it is still necessary to remove the inconveniences to which, in their present state, the commercial relations of that country are subject, from the existing duties and restrictions, was pleased to assign the execution of this important task to the Board of duties; and after the propositions, presented by them, had been examined by trusty and intelligent persons, his majesty has thought proper to approve and order the observance, for the present, of the following tariff, instructions, and regulations.
Rs. Ms. Rs. Ms.
*Sugar proceeding from, or purchased in a foreign market, although the produce of Spanish America, to be considered as a foreign production, and inadmissible.
Spain, will pay a duty of 2 per cent. besides those stated in this tariff.
Regulations for the understanding and execution of the preceding Tariff.
Art. 1. The ports habilitated for the trade to Spanish America, are those of which are such at present, in virtue of a royal order.
Art. 2. The ports of Bilboa and St. Sebastians are also provisionally habilitated for the same pur. pose, and the administrative and controlling functions will be exercised by the judge of contraband, agreeably to the rules to be drawn up immediately, and presented by the director general of the revenue for his majesty's approbation.
Art. 3. The produce, goods, and effects of the Spanish American possessions, may be transported in Spanish or foreign vessels, upon payment of the royal and other duties fixed in this tariff, with the difference that an extra duty of two per cent. will be charged in cases when foreign vessels, laden with Spanish colonial produce, shall arrive at the habilitated ports in America.
Art. 4. All vessels, Spanish or foreign, proceeding from the Havana, Puerto Rico, or other places, at peace with Spain, are to accompany the produce, goods, or effects, which they may have shipped there, with a register from the custom houses of those places, according to the present existing practice.
Art. 5. When the same vessels, proceeding from other foreign ports in America, shall touch at the above-mentioned ports of the Ha. vana and Puerto Rico, with cargoes of Spanish colonial produce, on
their way to the habilitated ports of Spain, they shall be required to make a declaration of their cargoes, and to renew their registers before continuing their voyage.
Art. 6. Spanish vessels, or those of neutral powers, which, having received their cargoes in the foreign ports of America, shall arrive direct at the habilitated ports of Spain, are to present their manifests with the formalities prescribed by the general instruction of the 16th of April, 1816.
Art. 7. Extensive and capacious stores of deposit will be established in Puerto Rico and the Havana, for the reception and safe keeping of the merchandise and produce of Spain, which merchants may wish to send to foreign neutral ports; as also to receive the American colonial produce which may be destined for the Peninsula.
Art. 8. In making such deposits, the same rules will be observed there, as in the other ports of de posit in Spain; the object proposed, being no other than the preservation of the property; in order to which, an account will be kept of the reception and delivery of all goods, and of their change of own ers. Half per cent. will be charged on the reception of such property, and half per cent. more on their delivery, to defray the expenses of rent, salaries, and other unavoida ble charges.
Art. 9. All national or foreign produce, goods, or effects, shipped in the ports of the Peninsula, for those of America at peace with Spain, and furnished with proper registers, will pay, in the latter, the duties established by the tariffs observed there.
Art. 10. Silver, and other arti. cles, arriving from friendly ports.